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The Crystal Tree



Minerals are classified according to their chemical composition into families or classes. This system is called the Dana System, created by Professor James Dana of Yale University  in 1848. The Dana system divides the over 3000 minerals found on earth into eight basic classes: silicates, oxides, sulfates, sulfides, carbonates, halides, native elements, phosphates and mineraloids.

Below you will find a short introduction to each of the eight classes, followed by the full Dana system classification tree with sub classes, groups and individual varieties. Enjoy!



Silicates are formed through the combination of metals with Silicon and oxygen, and this is the largest group of all. There are more silicates than all other minerals combined! Mica and Quartz are examples of the Silicate group. Silicates have been further divided by their structures into 6 sub-classes.

Hematite Tumbled L-XL 1


Sulfates are compounds of sulfur combined with metal and oxygen. It is a large group of minerals that tend to be soft, and translucent. Celestite is an example.


Carbonates are a group of minerals made of carbon, oxygen and a metallic element. Calcite is the most common of the group.

Rainbow Fluorite Polished Slice 15cm


Native Elements is the category of “the pure” – while most minerals are made up of combinations of chemical elements, the minerals in this group are found on their own, in a naturally pure form. Gold, copper and silver are examples.


Phosphates are not as common in occurrence as the other classes of minerals. They are often formed when other minerals are broken down by weathering. They are often brightly coloured. Apatite is an example.


Oxides are a combination of metal and oxygen. While some minerals in this class are dull ores, it ranges to include precious gems like rubies. 


Sulfides are compounds of sulfur, usually with a metal. They tend to be heavy and brittle. Several important metal ores come from this group. Pyrite is an example.

Calcite Drusy Cluster 7cm_115g_3


Halides form from halogen elements like chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine combined with metallic elements. They are very soft and easily dissolved in water. Halite is a well known example of this group (sodium chloride – table salt), as well as Fluorite.

Azurite Crystal Specimen


Mineraloids is the term used for those substances that do not fit neatly into one of these eight classes. They generally don’t have a crystalline structure (amorphous). Opal, jet, amber and pearl all belong to this unofficial group.


A02/5 Amethyst Drusy Cluster 100-140g 132g 7cm 1
Dumortierite Tumbled Stone L- XL 1
Epidote Cluster 4cm RARE 1


Silicate minerals contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. Over 90% of the common rock-forming minerals are silicates. Common silicates include Quartz, Feldspar and Mica. The Silicates are divided into the following subclasses, not by their chemistries, but by their structures.


Single tetrahedrons. The simplest of all the silicate subclasses, the Nesosilicates include all silicates where the (SiO4) tetrahedrons are unbonded to other tetrahedrons. In this respect they are similar to other mineral classes such as the sulfates and phosphates. These other classes also have tetrahedral basic ionic units (PO4 & SO4) and thus there are several groups and minerals within them that are similar to the members of the nesosilicates. Nesosilicates, which are sometimes referred to as orthosilicates, have a structure that produces stronger bonds and a closer packing of ions and therefore a higher density, index of refraction and hardness than chemically similar silicates in other subclasses. Consequently, there are more gemstones in the nesosilicates than in any other silicate subclass.

Bakerite (Hydrated Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Datolite (Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Gadolinite (Cerium Yttrium Lanthanum Neodymium Iron Beryllium Silicate Oxide)
Hingganite (Cerium Yttrium Ytterbium Erbium Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Minasgeraisite (Calcium Yttrium Beryllium Silicate Oxide)
Yttrocerberysilite (Yttrium Beryllium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Clinohedrite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Silicate)
Euclase (Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Gerstmannite (Magnesium Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Hodgkinsonite (Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Alleghanyite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Jerrygibbsite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Leucophoenicite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Manganhumite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Reinhardbraunsite (Calcium Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Ribbeite (Magnesium Iron Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Sonolite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Laihunite (Iron Silicate)
Liebenbergite (Nickel Magnesium Silicate)
Tephroite (Manganese Silicate)
Larsenite (Lead Zinc Silicate)
Trimerite (Calcium Manganese Beryllium Silicate)
Afwillite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Andalusite (Aluminum Silicate)
Beryllite (Hydrated Beyllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Bredigite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Britholite (Cerium Yttrium Calcium Silicate Phosphate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Bultfonteinite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Cappelenite-(Y) (Barium Yttrium Cerium Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
Cerite-(Ce) (Cerium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Chlorellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Chloride Fluoride)
Chloritoid (Iron Magnesium Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Dumortierite (Aluminum Boro-Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ellenbergerite (Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Fluoride Hydroxide Chloride)
Eulytite (Bismuth Silicate)
Fluorbritholite-(Ce) (Cerium Lanthanum Sodium Calcium Silicate Phosphate Fluoride)
Fluorellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Fluoride Hydroxide Chloride)
Garrelsite-VIII (Barium Sodium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Glaucochroite (Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Haiweeite [Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Silicate]
Hatrurite (Calcium Silicate)
Hellandite-(Y) (Calcium Yttrium Aluminum Iron Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Henritermierite (Calcium Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Holtite (Aluminum Tantalum Antimony Boro-Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
HOWLITE (Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Huttonite (Thorium Silicate)
Hydroxylellestadite (Calcium Silicate Sulfate Hydroxide Fluoride Chloride)
Jasmundite (Calcium Silicate Oxide Sulfide)
Kanonaite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate)
Karnasurtite (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Thorium Titanium Niobium Aluminum Silicate Phosphate Hydroxide)
Kirschstenite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
Larnite (Calcium Silicate)
Liberite (Lithium Beryllium Silicate)
Limoriite (Yttrium Silicate Carbonate)
Magnesiochloritoid (Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Malayaite (Calcium Tin Silicate)
Mattheddleite (Lead Silicate Sulfate Oxide Chloride)
Melanocerite (Hydrated Cerium Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Merwinite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Monticellite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Mullite (Aluminum Silicate)
Nagelschmidtite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate)
Okanoganite-(Y) (Sodium Calcium Yttrium Cerium Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
OLIVINE (Aluminum Silicate)
Ottrelite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Natisite (Sodium Titanate Silicate)
Paranatisite (Sodium Titanate Silicate)
Ringwoodite (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Saryarkite (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Thorium Aluminum Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Sitinakite (Hydrated Sodium Potassium Titanium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Soddyite [Hydrated Uranyl Silicate]
Spurrite (Calcium Silicate Carbonate)
Stillwellite (Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Boro-Silicate)
Sverigeite (Sodium Manganese Magnesium Tin Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Tadzhikite (Calcium Cerium Yttrium Titanium Aluminum Iron Boro-Silicate)
Tombarthite (Yttrium Silicate Hydroxide)
TOPAZ (Aluminum Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Tornebohmite (Cerium Lanthanum Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Trimounsite-(Y) (Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium Ytterbium Gadolinium Holmium Terbium Samarium Titanium Silicate)
Tritomite (Cerium Yttrium Lanthanum Calcium Thorium Iron Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Uranosilite [Uranium Uranyl Silicate]
Vanadomalayaite (Calcium Vanadium Silicate)
Vicanite-(Ce) (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Thorium Arsenic Sodium Iron Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
Wadalite (Calcium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate Chloride)
Wadsleyite (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Weeksite [Hydrated Potassium Uranyl Silicate]
Yftisite (Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium Titanium Tin Silicate Oxide Fluoride Hydroxide)
Yoderite (Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)


Double Tetrahedrons. Sorosilicates have two silicate tetrahedrons that are linked by one oxygen ion and thus the basic chemical unit is the anion group (Si2O7) with a negative six charge (-6). This structure forms an unusual hourglass-like shape and it may be due to this oddball structure that this subclass has so few common members in comparison with all the other silicate subclasses. It includes minerals that may also contain normal silicate tetrahedrons as well as the double tetrahedrons. The more complex members of this group, such as Epidote, contain chains of aluminum oxide tetrahedrons being held together by the individual silicate tetrahedrons and double tetrahedrons. Most members of this group are rare, but epidote is widespread in many metamorphic environments.



Clinozoisite (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
EPIDOTE (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Hancockite (Lead Calcium Strontium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Piemontite (Calcium Aluminum Manganese Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Strontiopiemontite (Calcium Manganese Strontium Aluminum Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
ZOISITE (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Akatoreite (Manganese Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Akermanite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Aminoffite (Calcium Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Andremeyerite (Barium Iron Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Androsite-(La) (Manganese Calcium Lanthanum Cerium Neodymium Aluminum Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ardennite (Manganese Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Arsenic Vanadate Phosphate Silicate Hydroxide)
Bafertisite (Barium Iron Manganese Titanium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Baghdadite (Hydrated Calcium Zirconium Titanium Silicate)
Barylite (Barium Beryllium Silicate)
Barysilite (Lead Manganese Silicate)
Barytolamprophyllite (Sodium Potassium Barium Calcium Strontium Titanium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Belkovite (Barium Niobium Titanium Silicate Fluoride)
Bornemanite (Barium Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate Phosphate Fluoride Oxide)
Burpalite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Silicate)
Chevkinite-(Ce) (Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Sodium Thorium Iron Magnesium Titanium Silicate)
Clinophosinaite (Sodium Calcium Phosphate Silicate)
Cuspidine (Calcium Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Davreuxite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Delindeite (Sodium Potassium Barium Calcium Titanium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Edgarbaileyite (Mercury Silicate)
Epistolite (Hydrated Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate)
Ericssonite (Barium Manganese Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Fersmanite (Calcium Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate Fluoride)
Fluorthalenite (Yttrium Silicate Fluoride)
Foshallasite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate)
Fresnoite (Barium Titanium Silicate)
Ganomalite (Lead Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Gehlenite (Calcium Aluminum Silicate)
Gittinsite (Calcium Zirconium Silicate)
Gotzenite (Calcium Sodium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Gugiaite (Calcium Beryllium Silicate)
Hainite (Sodium Calcium Titanium Zirconium Manganese Iron Silicate Fluoride)
Harstigite (Calcium Manganese Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Hejtmanite (Barium Manganese Iron Titanium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Hennomartinite (Hydrated Strontium Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Hiortdahlite (Calcium Sodium Zirconium Titanium Yttrium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Innelite (Barium Potassium Sodium Calcium Titanium Silicate Sulfate Oxide)
Jaffeite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Janhaugite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Titanium Zirconium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Jeffreyite (Calcium Sodium Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Jennite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Junitoite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Silicate)
Keiviite (Yttrium Ytterbium Silicate)
Melanotekite (Lead Iron Silicate)
Kentrolite (Lead Manganese Silicate)
Kilchoanite (Calcium Silicate)
Killalaite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate)
Komarovite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Sodium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lamprophyllite (Sodium Strontium Barium Titanium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lavenite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Zirconium Titanium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lawsonite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Lomonosovite (Sodium Manganese Titanium Silicate Phosphate Oxide)
Macfallite (Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Medaite (Manganese Calcium Vanadium Arsenic Silicate Hydroxide)
Melanotekite (Lead Iron Silicate)
Melilite (Calcium Sodium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Meliphanite (Calcium Sodium Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Mongolite (Hydrated Calcium Niobium Silicate Hydroxide)
Nacareniobsite (Niobium Sodium Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Praseodymium Neodymium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Nasonite (Lead Calcium Silicate Chloride)
Niocalite (Calcium Niobium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Noelbensonite (Hydrated Barium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Orientite (Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Orthoericssonite (Barium Manganese Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Perrierite (Cerium Calcium Lanthanum Neodymium Thorium Iron Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Zirconium Silicate)
Phosinaite-(Ce) (Sodium Calcium Cerium Silicate Phosphate)
Pumpellyite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Manganese Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Queitite (Lead Zinc Silicate Sulfate)
Rankinite (Calcium Silicate)
Rinkite (Sodium Calcium Cerium Titanium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Rosenbuschite (Calcium Sodium Zirconium Titanium Silicate Fluoride)
Rosenhahnite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Rowlandite-(Y) (Yttrium Iron Silicate Fluoride)
Ruizite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Rustumite (Calcium Silicate Chloride Hydroxide)
Samfowlerite (Calcium Manganese Zinc Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Seidozerite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Titanium Manganese Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Strontiochevkinite (Strontium Lanthanum Cerium Calcium Iron Titanium Zirconium Silicate)
Sursassite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Thalenite (Yttrium Silicate Hydroxide)
Thortveitite (Scandium Yttrium Silicate)
Tilleyite (Calcium Silicate Carbonate)
Tiragalloite (Manganese Arsenic Silicate Hydroxide)
Vuonnemite (Sodium Niobium Titanium Silicate Phosphate Oxide Fluoride)
Werdingite (Magnesium Iron Aluminum Boron Silicate Oxide)
Wohlerite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Yoshimuraite (Barium Strontium Titanium Manganese Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide Chloride)
Yttrialite (Yttrium Thorium Silicate)
Zunyite (Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride Chloride)


The cleavage of the two groups results between chains and does not break the chains thus producing prismatic cleavage. In the single chained silicates the two directions of cleavage are at nearly right angles (close to 90 degrees) forming nearly square cross sections. In the double chain silicates the cleavage angle is close to 120 and 60 degrees forming rhombic cross sections making a convenient way to distinguish double chain silicates from single chain silicates.


Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
AEGIRINE (Sodium Iron Silicate)
Augite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Clinoenstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
DIOPSIDE (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Esseneite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Hedenbergite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
HYPERSTHENE (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
JADEITE (Sodium Aluminum Silicate)
Jervisite (Sodium Calcium Iron Scandium Magnesium Silicate)
Johannsenite(Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Kanoite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Kosmochlor (Sodium Chromium Silicate)
Namansilite (Sodium Manganese Silicate)
Natalyite (Sodium Vanadium Chromium Silicate)
Omphacite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Petedunnite (Calcium Zinc Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicate)
Pigeonite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Silicate)
SPODUMENE (Lithium Aluminum Silicate)
Donpeacorite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
Ferrosilite (Iron Magnesium Silicate)
Nchwaningite (Hydrated Manganese Silicate)
Alamosite (Lead Silicate)
Batisite (Barium Potassium Sodium Titanium Silicate)
Gageite (Manganese Magnesium Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Hillebrandite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Pyroxferroite (Iron Manganese Calcium Silicate)
Pyroxmangite (Manganese Silicate)
RHODONITE (Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Silicate)
Serandite (Sodium Manganese Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
SHATTUCKITE (Copper Silicate Hydroxide)
Wollastonite (Calcium Silicate)


Fe-Mg-Li Clinoamphiboles
Clinoferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Clinoholmquistite (Lithium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Dannemorite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Grunerite (Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Holmquistite (Lithium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Tirodite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Fe-Mg-Li Orthoamphiboles
Ferro-anthophyllite (Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrogedrite (Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Gedrite (Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Protoferro-anthophyllite (Iron Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodicanthophyllite (Sodium Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite (Sodium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferrogedrite (Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodicgedrite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ca Amphiboles)
Ferro-actinolite (Calcium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrokaersutite (Sodium Calcium Iron Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferropargasite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrotschermakite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Fluorocannilloite (Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Fluoride)
Hastingsite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Hornblende (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Kaersutite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiohastingsite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiosadanagaite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Pargasite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassic-magnesiosadanagaite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassicpargasite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Potassicsadanagaite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Tschermakite (Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ca-Na Clinoamphiboles
Barroisite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrobarroisite (Calcium Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrorichterite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrowinchite (Calcium Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Katophorite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiokatophorite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiotaramite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassic-fluorrichterite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Silicate Fluoride)
Taramite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Winchite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Alkali Amphiboles
Eckermannite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferro-eckermannite (Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Fluoro-ferroleakeite (Sodium Iron Lithium Silicate Fluoride)
Kornite (Sodium Potassium Magnesium Manganese Lithium Silicate Hydroxide)
Kozulite (Sodium Manganese Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Leakeite (Sodium Magnesium Iron Lithium Silicate Hydroxide)
Nyboite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ungarettiite (Sodium Manganese Silicate Oxide)


These silicates form chains such as in the inosilicates except that the chains link back around on themselves to form rings.

Chromdravite (Sodium Magnesium Chromium Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
ELBAITE (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
Feruvite (Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
FOITITE (Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
Liddicoatite (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-silicate Oxide Hydroxidem Fluoride)
Olenite (Sodium Aluminum Boro-silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Povondravite (Sodium Iron Boro-silicate Hydroxide Oxide)
SCHORL (Sodium Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)


In this subclass, rings of tetrahedrons are linked by shared oxygens to other rings in a two dimensional plane that produces a sheet-like structure. Typically, the sheets are then connected to each other by layers of cations. These cation layers are weakly bonded and often have water molecules and other neutral atoms or molecules trapped between the sheets. This explains why this subclass produces very soft minerals such as talc, which is used in talcum powder. Some members of this subclass have the sheets rolled into tubes that produce fibers as in asbestos serpentine.

Glauconite (Potassium Sodium Iron Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Illite (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Sauconite (Hydrated Sodium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Baileychlore (Zinc Iron Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Chamosite (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Oxide)
The generallized mineral Chlorite
Clinochlore (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Cookeite (Lithium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Nimite (Nickel Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Pennantite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Penninite (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sudoite (Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
LEPIDOLITE (Potassium Lithium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
MUSCOVITE (Potassium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Paragonite (Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Allophane (Hydrated Aluminum Silicate)
APOPHYLLITE (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Bannisterite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Manganese Iron Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
CAVANSITE (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Silicate)
CHRYSOCOLLA (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Hydrogen Silicate Hydroxide)
VERMICULITE (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Delhayelite (Hydrated Sodium Potassium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Chloride Fluoride Sulfate)
Franklinfurnaceite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Franklinphilite (Hydrated Potassium Manganese Aluminum Silicate)
Gonyerite (Manganese Magnesium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Leucosphenite [Hydrated Barium Sodium Titanium Boro-silicate]
Minehillite [Hydrated Potassium Sodium Calcium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide]
Nordite [Cerium Lanthanum Strontium Calcium Sodium Manganese Zinc Magnesium Silicate]
Pentagonite (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Silicate)
PETALITE [Lithium Aluminum Silicate]
PREHNITE (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Rhodesite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Potassium Silicate)
Wickenburgite (Hydrated Lead Calcium Aluminum Silicate)
Zeophyllite [Hydrated Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride]


This subclass is often called the “Framework Silicates” because its structure is composed of interconnected tetrahedrons going outward in all directions forming an intricate framework analogous to the framework of a large building.

Hematite Tumbled L-XL 1
Chrysoberyl on Chrome Diopside
Smoky Quartz Rutilated Asylum 275g 7cm 1
Rutile in Quartz


Oxide minerals are made up of oxygen and one or more metals. Common oxide minerals include hematite and limonite. In a strict sense, minerals that belong to the more complex mineral classes such as the silicates are really oxides. But this would be cumbersome for mineralogists to be able to deal with only the four different classes of the elements class, the halides class, the sulfides class and finally the extremely large oxides class with all of its many subclasses and over 90% of all known minerals. By convention therefore, the oxides are limited to non complex minerals containing oxygen or hydroxide. Oxides also contain mostly ionic bonds and this helps distinguish members from the more complex mineral classes whose bonds are typically more covalent in nature. Quartz, SiO2, would be considered an oxide, and still is in some mineral guides and texts, except for its covalent silicon oxygen bonds and its structural similarity to the other Tectosilicates.






GOETHITE (Iron Oxide Hydroxide)
LIMONITE (Hydrated Iron Oxide Hydroxide)
Romeite (Calcium Sodium Iron Manganese Antimony Titanium Oxide Hydroxide)
Stetefeldtite (Silver Antimony Oxide Hydroxide)
Desert Rose crystal specimen
Desert Rose
Wulfenite crystal specimen 40g 4cm 1


Sulfate minerals contain sulfur and oxygen (SO4) combined with other elements. Common sulfate minerals include Gypsum and Barite.


Ammonioalunite (Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Huangite (Calcium Aluminum Sulfate Oxide Hydroxide)
Minamiite (Sodium Calcium Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Natroalunite (Sodium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Osarizawaite (Lead Copper Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Walthierite (Barium Aluminum Sulfate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ammoniojarosite (Ammonium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Argentojarosite (Silver Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Beaverite (Lead Copper Iron Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Dorallcharite (Thallium Potassium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hydroniumjarosite (Hydronium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Plumbojarosite (Lead Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
BARITE (Barium Sulfate)
CELESTITE(Strontium Sulfate)
Hashemite (Barium Chromate Sulfate)
Corkite (Lead Iron Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Gallobeudantite (Lead Gallium Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hidalgoite (Lead Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Kemmlitzite (Strontium Cerium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Orpheite (Lead Aluminum Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Schlossmacherite (Hydrated Hydrogen Calcium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Jokokuite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Pentahydrite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
Siderotil (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Apjohnite (Hydrated Manganese Aluminum Sulfate)
Bilinite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Dietrichite (Hydrated Zinc Iron Manganese Aluminum Sulfate)
Halotrichite(Hydrated Iron Aluminum Sulfate)
Pickeringite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Sulfate)
Redingtonite (Hydrated Iron Magnesium Nickel Chromium Aluminum Sulfate)
Wupatkiite (Hydrated Cobalt Magnesium Nickel Aluminum Sulfate)
Dwornikite (Hydrated Nickel Iron Sulfate)
Gunningite (Hydrated Zinc Manganese Sulfate)
Poitevinite (Hydrated Copper Iron Zinc Sulfate)
Szmikite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Szomolnokite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Bieberite (Hydrated Cobalt Sulfate)
Boothite (Hydrated Copper Sulfate)
Mallardite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Zinc-melanterite (Hydrated Zinc Copper Iron Sulfate)
Starkeyite (Hydrated Cobalt Manganese Nickel Sulfate)
Boyleite (Hydrated Zinc Magnesium Sulfate)
Ilesite (Hydrated Manganese Zinc Iron Sulfate)
Rozenite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Starkeyite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
Amarantite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Ammonioalunite (Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
ANHYDRITE (Calcium Sulfate)
Aphthitalite (Potassium Sodium Sulfate)
Argentojarosite (Silver Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Beaverite (Copper Iron Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Botryogen (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Burkeite (Sodium Carbonate Sulfate)
Butlerite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Charlesite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Silicon Hydroborate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Chessexite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Magnesium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Despujolsite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Sulfate Hydroxide)
Devilline (Hydrated Calcium Copper Sulfate Hydroxide)
ETTRINGITE (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Goslarite (Hydrated Zinc Sulfate)
GYPSUM (Hydrated Calcium Sulfate)
Hauckite (Magnesium Manganese Zinc Iron Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hectorfloresite (Sodium Iolate Sulfate)
Heidornite (Sodium Calcium Borate Sulfate Chloride Hydroxide)
Hexahydrite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
Humberstonite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Magnesium Nitrate Sulfate)
Johannite (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Sulfate Hydroxide)
Jouravskite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Lanarkite (Lead Sulfate)
Langite (Hydrated Copper Sulfate Hydroxide)
Mirabilite (Hydrated Sodium Sulfate)
Mooreite (Hydrated Magnesium Zinc Manganese Sulfate Hydroxide)
Morenosite (Hydrated Nickel Sulfate)
Mountkeithite (Hydrated Magnesium Nickel Iron Chromium Aluminum Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Nakauriite (Hydrated Copper Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Plumbojarosite (Lead Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Potassium alum (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Sulfate)
Rapidcreekite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate Sulfate)
Retgersite (Hydrated Nickel Sulfate)
Serpierite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Zinc Sulfate Hydroxide)
Tatarskite (Hydrated CAlcium Magnesium Carbonate Sulfate Chloride Hydroxide)
Torreyite (Hydrated Magnesium Manganese Zinc Sulfate Hydroxide)
Ungemachite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Iron Nitrate Sulfate)
Vanthoffite (Sodium Magnesium Sulfate)
Voltaite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Sulfate)
Wherryite (Lead Copper Sulfate Silicate Hydroxide)
Woodwardite(Hydrated Copper Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)




Chromatite (Calcium Chromate)
Deanesmithite (Mercury Chromate Sulfide)
Edoylerite (Mercury Chromate Sulfide)
Hashemite (Barium Chromate Sulfate)
Hemihedrite (Lead Zinc Chromate Silicate Fluoride)
Iranite (Lead Copper Chromate Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Lopezite (Potassium Chromate)
Macquartite (Lead Copper Chromate Silicate Hydroxide)
Phoenicochroite (Lead Chromate Oxide)
Santanaite (Lead Chromate Oxide)
Tarapacaite (Potassium Chromate)
Wattersite (Mercury Chromate)




Deloryite (Copper Uranyl Molybdenate Hydroxide)
Koechlinite (Bismuth Molybdenate)
Lindgrenite (Copper Molybdenate Hydroxide)
Sedovite (Uranium Molybdenate)
Szenicsite (Copper Molybdenate Hydroxide)


SeO4 & SeO3



Ahlfeldite (Hydrated Nickel Cobalt Selenite)
Chalcomenite (Copper Selenite)
Clinochalcomenite (Hydrated Copper Selenite)
COBALTOMENITE (Hydrated Cobalt Selenite)
Demesmaekerite (Hydated Lead Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Derriksite (Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Francisite (Copper Bismuth Selenite Oxide Chloride)
Guilleminite (Hydated Barium Uranyl Selenite Oxide)
Haynesite (Hydated Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Mandarinoite (Hydrated Iron Selenite)
Marthozite (Hydated Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Molybdomenite (Lead Selenite)
Olsacherite (Lead Selenate Sulfate)
Schmiederite (Lead Copper Selenite Selenate Hydroxide)
Sophiite (Zinc Selenite Chloride)


TeO4 &TeO3



Balyakinite (Copper Tellurite)
Carlfriesite (Calcium Tellurite)
Cesbronite (Hydrated Copper Tellurite Hydroxide)
Chekhovichite (Bismuth Lead Iron Tellurite)
Cheremnykhite (Zinc Lead Tellurate Vanadate Arsenate)
Choloalite (Copper Lead Tellurite)
Cuzticite (Hydrated Iron Tellurate)
Denningite (Manganese Zinc Tellurite)
Dugganite (Lead Zinc Tellurate Arsenate Vanadate Silicate Hydroxide)
Eztlite (Hydrated Lead Iron Tellurite Tellurate Hydroxide)
Fairbankite (Lead Tellurite)
Frankhawthorneite (Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Girdite (Lead Hydrogen Tellurite Tellurate)
Jensenite (Hydrated Copper Tellurate)
Keystoneite (Hydrated Magnesium Nickel Iron Tellurite)
Khinite (Lead Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Kinichilite (Hydrated Magnesium Manganese Iron Tellurite)
Kuranakhite (Lead Manganese Tellurate)
Kuksite (Lead Calcium Zinc Tellurate Phosphate Vanadate)
Mackayite (Iron Tellurite Hydroxide)
Magnolite (Mercury Tellurite)
Mcalpineite (Hydrated Copper Tellurate)
Montanite (Hydrated Bismuth Tellurate)
Mroseite (Calcium Tellurite Carbonate Oxide)
Tlapallite (Hydrated Lead Hydrogen Tellurite Tellurate)
Parakhinite (Copper Lead Tellurate Hydroxide)
Pingguite (Bismuth Tellurite)
Plumbotellurite (Lead Tellurite)
Poughite (Hydrated Iron Tellurite Sulfate)
Rajite (Copper Tellurite)
Rodalquilarite (Hydrogen Iron Tellurite Chloride)
Schiefflinite (Hydrated Lead Tellurate Sulfate)
Smirnite (Bismuth Tellurite)
Sonoraite (Hydrated Iron Tellurite Hydroxide)
Spiroffite (Manganese Zinc Tellurite)
Teineite (Hydrated Copper Tellurite)
Tlalocite (Hydrated Copper Zinc Tellurite Tellurate Chloride Hydroxide)
Tlapallite (Hydrogen Calcium Lead Copper Zinc Tellurite Tellurate Sulfate)
Winstanleyite (Titanium Tellurite)
Xocomecatlite (Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Yecoraite (Hydrated Bismuth Iron Tellurite Tellurate Oxide)
Zemannite (Hydrated Magnesium Zinc Iron Tellurite)




Cuprotungstite (Copper Tungstate Hydroxide)
Jixianite (Lead Iron Tungstate Oxide Hydroxide)
Lindgrenite (Aluminum Tungstate Hydroxide)
Raspite (Lead Tungstate)
Russellite (Bismuth Tungstate)
Sanmartinite (Zinc Iron Tungstate)
Stolzite (Lead Tungstate)
Tungstibite (Antimony Oxide Tungstate)





Gravegliaite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfite)
Hannebachite (Hydrated Calcium Sulfite)
Orschallite (Hydrated Calcium Sulfite Sulfate)
Scotlandite (Lead Sulfite)
Pyrite Rough Pieces 20-40g 1


Sulfide minerals contain sulfur and a metal. Common sulfide minerals include galena and pyrite. The Sulfide Class minerals comprise an economically important class of minerals. Most major ores of important metals such as copper, lead and silver are sulfides. Strong generalities exist in this class. The majority of sulfides are metallic, opaque, generally sectile, soft to average in hardness and they have high densities, black or dark-colored streaks, and an igneous origin. But, there are a few vitreous and transparent members such as realgar, cinnabar and orpiment.

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Berzelianite (Copper Selenide)
Eucairite (Silver Copper Selenide)
Klockmannite (Copper Selenide)
Tiemannite (Mercury Selenide)
Umangite (Copper Selenide)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Coloradoite (Mercury Telluride)
Empressite (Silver Telluride)
Kostovite (Copper Gold Telluride)
Krennerite (Silver Gold Telluride)
Melonite (Nickel Telluride)
Petzite (Silver Gold Telluride)
Rickardite (Copper Telluride)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Aurostibite (Gold Antimonide)
Breithauptite (Nickel Antimonide)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Maucherite (Nickel Arsenide)
Nickel-skutterudite (chloanthite) (Nickel Arsenide)
Smaltite (Cobalt Nickel Arsenide)
Green calcite rough pieces 20-30g 1
Emerald Green Calcite
Azurite Crystal Specimen


Carbonate minerals contain carbonate (CO3), a combination of carbon and oxygen, combined with other elements. Common carbonate minerals include: calcite and dolomite.


ARAGONITE Calcium Carbonate
CERUSSITE Lead Carbonate
Strontianite (Strontium Carbonate)
Witherite (Barium Carbonate)
CALCITE (Calcium Carbonate)
Gaspeite (Nickel Magnesium Iron Carbonate)
MAGNESITE (Magnesium Carbonate)
Otavite (Cadmium Carbonate)
RHODOCHROSITE (Manganese Carbonate)
Siderite (Iron Carbonate)
SMITHSONITE (Zinc Carbonate)
Sphaerocobaltite (Cobalt Carbonate)
Ankerite (Calcium Iron Carbonate)
Benstonite (Barium Strontium Calcium Manganese Magnesium Carbonate)
DOLOMITE (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
Huntite (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
KUTNOHORITE (Calcium Manganese Magnesium Iron Carbonate)
Minrecordite (Calcium Zinc Carbonate)
Norsethite (Barium Magnesium Carbonate)
Glaukospherite (Copper Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
KOLWEZITE (Copper Cobalt Carbonate Hydroxide)
Mcguinnessite (Magnesium Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Nullaginite (Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Rosasite (Copper Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Zincrosasite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Alstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Alumohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Artinite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Aurichalcite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
AZURITE (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Barbertonite (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Barentsite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Barringtonite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
Barytocalcite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Baylissite (Hydrated Potassium Magnesium Carbonate)
Beyerite (Calcium Lead Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Bismutite (Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Brenkite (Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
Brugnatellite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
Butschliite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
CALCITE (Calcium Carbonate)
Caresite (Hydrated Iron Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Chalconatronite (Hydrated Sodium Copper Carbonate)
Charmarite (Hydrated Manganese Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Dawsonite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
DOLOMITE (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
Dresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Dundasite (Hydrated Lead Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Eitelite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate)
Fairchildite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
Gaylussite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Georgeite (Hydrated Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hellyerite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate)
Hydrocerussite (Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrodresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrotalcite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrozincite (Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Ikaite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
Indigirite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Kalicinite (Potassium Bicarbonate)
Kambaldaite (Hydrated Sodium Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Kettnerite (Calcium Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Lansfordite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
Leadhillite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Loseyite (Manganese Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Macphersonite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
MALACHITE (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Manasseite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Monohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
Nahcolite (Sodium Bicarbonate)
Natrite (Sodium Carbonate)
Natrofairchildite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Natron (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
Nesquehonite (Hydrated Magnesium Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
Northupite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Chloride)
Nyerereite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Olekminskite (Strontium Calcium Barium Carbonate)
Paralstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Phosgenite (Lead Carbonate Cloride)
Pirssonite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Plumbonacrite (Lead Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Pokrovskite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Pyroaurite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
Quintinite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
ROSASITE (Copper Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Rouvilleite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Carbonate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Sabinaite (Sodium Zirconium Titanium Carbonate Oxide)
Sclarite (Zinc Magnesium Manganese Carbonate Hydroxide)
Sergeevite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
Shannonite (Lead Carbonate Oxide)
Sheldrickite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
Shortite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Sjogrenite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
STICHTITE (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Strontiodresserite (Hydrated Strontium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Susannite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
Szymanskiite (Hydrated Mercury Nickel Magnesium Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Teschemacherite (Ammonia Bicarbonate)
Thermonatrite (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
Trona (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
Tunisite (Sodium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Chloride)
Tychite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Sulfate)
Vaterite (Calcium Carbonate)
Wegscheiderite (Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
Weloganite (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Zirconium Carbonate)
Zaratite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Zemkorite (Sodium Potassium Calcium Carbonate)


Astrocyanite-(Ce) (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Bayleyite (Hydrated Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
Bijvoetite-(Y) (Hydrated Yttrium Dysprosium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Fontanite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Grimselite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Uranyl Carbonate)
Joliotite (Hydrated Uranyl Carbonate)
Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Metazellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Rabbittite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Roubaultite (Copper Uranyl Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Rutherfordine (Uranyl Carbonate)
Shabaite (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Sharpite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Swartzite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
Voglite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Uranyl Carbonate)
Widenmannite (Lead Uranyl Carbonate)
Zellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Znucalite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)


Ancylite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Strontium Calcium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Baiyuneboite-(Ce) (Sodium Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Calcioancylite (Hydrated Calcium Strontium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Calkinsite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate)
Cebaite (Barium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Fluoride)
Daqingshanite-(Ce) (Strontium Calcium Barium Cerium Lanthanum Phosphate Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Donnayite-(Y) (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Ewaldite (Barium Calcium Yttrium Sodium Potassium Carbonate)
Gysinite-(Nd) (Hydrated Neodymium Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
Horvathite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride)
Huanghoite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Khanneshite (Sodium Calcium Barium Strontium Cerium Carbonate)
Kimuraite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Lanthanite (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
lokkaite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Mckelveyite-(Y) (Hydrated Barium Sodium Calcium Uranium Yttrium Carbonate)
Reederite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Sulfate Chloride)
Remondite-(Ce) (Sodium Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Strontium Carbonate)
Rontgenite-(Ce) (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate Fluoride)
Sahamalite-(Ce) (Magnesium Iron Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
Schuilingite-(Nd) (Hydrated Lead Copper Neodymium Gadolinium Samarium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Shomiokite (Hydrated Sodium Yttrium Carbonate)
Tengerite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Thorbastnasite (Hydrated Thorium Calcium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Tuliokite (Hydrated Barium Sodium Thorium Carbonate)
Tundrite (Sodium Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Titanium Niobium Silicate Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Zhonghuacerite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)


Borate minerals are more complex in their structures than typical carbonates. The group is similar to the many structural variations found in the Silicate Class of minerals, not due to chemistry (mostly sodium, calcium and/or magnesium borates, many with hydroxides, many hydrated and some with chlorine; but little else in terms of chemical variation) but due to boron in the BO3 ionic group having a positive three (+3) charge. It only requires half of the bond strength of each negative two (-2) oxygen., which allows the oxygens to bond with other borons evenly and thus link boron groups together into compound groups, chains, sheets and even a framework structure using BO4 tetrahedrons linked to BO3 groups. A common borate is Howlite

Admontite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate)
Aksaite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Ameghinite (Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Ammonioborite (Hydrated Ammonia Borate)
Aristarainite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Borate)
Bandylite (Copper Hydroborate Chloride)
Behierite (Tantalum Niobium Borate)
Berborite (Hydrated Beryllium Borate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Biringuccite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Blatterite (Manganese Magnesium Antimony Iron Borate Oxide)
Braitschite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Cerium Lanthanum Borate)
Calciborite (Calcium Borate)
Chambersite (Manganese Borate Chloride)
Chelkarite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate Chloride)
Clinokurchatovite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Manganese Borate)
Congolite (Iron Magnesium Manganese Borate Chloride)
Diomignite (Lithium Borate)
Ekaterinite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Ericaite (Iron Magnesium Manganese Borate Chloride)
Ezcurrite (Hydrated Sodium Borate)
Fabianite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Federovskite (Calcium Magnesium Manganese Borate Hydroxide)
Fluoborite (Magnesium Borate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Frolovite (Calcium Hydroborate)
Ginorite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Gowerite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Halurgite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Hambergite (Beryllium Borate Hydroxide)
Henmilite (Calcium Copper Hydroborate Hydroxide)
Hexahydroborite (Hydrated Calcium Hydroborate)
Hilgardite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride)
Hulsite (Iron Magnesium Antimony Borate)
Hungchaoite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Hydrochlorborite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Inderborite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Inderite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Inyoite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Jeremejevite (Aluminum Borate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Jimboite (Manganese Borate)
Johachidolite (Calcium Aluminum Borate)
Kaliborite (Hydrated Potassium Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Karlite (Magnesium Aluminum Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Korzhinskite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Kotoite (Magnesium Borate)
Kurchatovite (Calcium Magnesium Manganese Iron Borate)
Kurnakovite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Ludwigite Group (Magnesium Iron Nickel Titanium Antimony Aluminum Borate)
Magnesiohulsite (Magnesium Iron Antimony Borate)
Mcallisterite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Meyerhofferite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nasinite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Nifontovite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nobleite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nordenskioldine (Calcium Antimony Borate)
Olshanskyite (Calcium Hydroborate)
Orthopinakiolite (Magnesium Manganese Borate)
Penobsquisite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Pentahydroborite (Hydrated Calcium Hydroborate)
Peprossiite (Cerium Lanthanum Aluminum Borate)
Pinakiolite (Magnesium Manganese Antimony Borate)
Pinnoite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate)
Preobrazhenskite (Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Priceite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Pringleite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Probertite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Rivadavite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Borate)
Roweite (Calcium Manganese Borate Hydroxide)
Ruitenbergite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Santite (Hydrated Potassium Borate Hydroxide)
Sassolite (Boric Acid)
Satimolite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Aluminum Chloride)
Sborgite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Shabynite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Sibirskite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Solongoite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Strontioborite (Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Strontioginorite (Hydrated Strontium Calcium Borate)
Studenitsite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Suanite (Magnesium Borate)
Szaibelyite (Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Takedaite (Calcium Borate)
Takeuchiite (Magnesium Manganese Iron Borate)
Teepleite (Sodium Hydroborate Chloride)
Tertschite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Trembathite (Magnesium Iron Borate Chloride)
Tunellite (Hydrated Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Tusionite (Manganese Antimony Borate)
Tuzlaite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Tyretskite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Uralborite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Veatchite (Hydrated Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Vimsite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Volkovskite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Borate Hydroborate Chloride)
Wardsmithite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate)
Warwickite (Magnesium Titanium Iron Aluminum Borate Oxide)
Wightmanite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Oxide Hydroxide)
Yuanfuliite (Magnesium Iron Aluminum Titanium Borate Oxide)
Bellingerite (Hydrated Copper Iodate)
Bruggenite (Hydrated Calcium Iodate)
Lautarite (Calcium Iodate)
Salesite (Copper Iodate Hydroxide)
Schwartzembergite (Lead Iodate Oxide Chloride Hydroxide)
Darapskite (Hydrated Sodium Sulfate Nitrate Hydroxide)
Gerhardtite (Copper Nitrate Hydroxide)
Hydrombobomkulite (Hydrated Nickel Copper Aluminum Nitrate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Likasite (Hydrated Copper Nitrate Hydroxide)
Mbobomkulite (Hydrated Nickel Copper Aluminum Nitrate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Nitrobarite (Barium Nitrate)
Nitrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Nitrate)
Nitromagnesite (Hydrated Magnesium Nitrate)
Sveite (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Nitrate Chloride Hydroxide)
Multicolour Fluorite
Fluorite Green Natural Octahedron 10-20g 2
Fluorite Octahedron
Green Cubic Fluorite


The Halides are a group of minerals whose principle anions are halogens. Halogens are a special group of elements that usually have a charge of negative one when chemically combined. The halogens that are found commonly in nature include Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine and Bromine. Halides tend to have rather simply ordered structures and therefore a high degree of symmetry. The most famous halide mineral, halite (NaCl) or rock salt has the highest symmetry 4/m bar 3 2/m. The colorful mineral fluorite (CaF) also has 4/m bar 3 2/m symmetry and its cubic crystals are very popular mineral specimens. There are only a few common halide minerals. The typical halide mineral is soft, can be transparent, is generally not very dense, has good cleavage, and often has bright colors. Fluorite is an example of a Halide.

ATACAMITE (Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Avogadrite (Potassium Cesium Boron Fluoride)
Bararite (Ammonium Silicon Fluoride)
Bischofite (Hydrated Magnesium Chloride)
Bismoclite (Bismuth Chloride Oxide)
Boleite (Hydrated Lead Copper Silver Chloride Hydroxide)
Calomel (Mercury Chloride)
Camermanite (Potassium Silicon Fluoride)
Carnallite (Hydrated Potasium Magnesium Chloride)
Chiolite (Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Chlorargyrite (Silver Chloride)
Chlorocalcite (Potassium Calcium Chloride)
Chloromanganokalite (Potassium Manganese Chloride)
Chloroxiphite (Lead Copper Chloride Oxide Hydroxide)
Cotunnite (Lead chloride)
Cryolite (Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Cryolithionite (Lithium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Cryptohalite (Ammonium Silicon Fluoride)
Cumengeite (Hydrated Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Diaboleite (Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Douglasite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Chloride)
Embolite (Silver Chloride Bromide)
Erythrosiderite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Chloride)
Ferruccite (Sodium Boron Fluoride)
Fiedlerite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Fluocerite (Cerium Lanthanum Fluoride)
FLUORITE (Calcium Fluoride)
HALITE (Sodium Chloride)
Hieratite (Potassium Silicon Fluoride)
Jarlite (Sodium Strontium Aluminum Fluoride)
Kempite (Manganese Chloride Hydroxide)
Laurionite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Lawrencite (Iron Chloride)
Lorettoite (Lead Chloride Oxide)
Malladrite (Sodium Silicon Fluoride)
Marshite (Copper Iodide)
Matlockite (Lead Fluoride Chloride)
Mendipite (Lead Chloride Oxide)
Miersite (silver copper Iodide)
Nantokite (Copper Chloride)
Pachnolite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Paralaurionite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Penfieldite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Prosopite (Calcium Aluminum Fluoride Hydroxide)
Pseudoboleite (Hydrated Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Ralstonite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Fluoride Hydroxide)
Rinneite (Potassium Sodium Iron Chloride)
Sal Ammoniac (Ammonium Chloride)
Scacchite (Manganese Chloride)
Sellaite (Magnesium Fluoride)
Sylvite (Potassium Chloride)
Tachhydrite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Chloride)
Thomsenolite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Villiaumite (Sodium Fluoride)


Native elements are minerals that form as individual elements. Gold and copper are examples of metallic native elements. Diamonds are a type of non-metallic native element as they consist of pure carbon.


The Metals Subclass and related metal alloys contains metals whose properties are rather similar due to the common way in which they crystallize and bond. The greatest difference in the metals is color.



Aluminum Al
Gold Au
Lead Pb
Mercury Hg
Cadmium Cd
Chromium Cr
Indium In
Iron Fe
Nickel Ni
The Platinum Group
Iridium (Ir, Os, Ru)
Palladium Pd
Platinum Pt
Rhodium (Rh, Pt)
Tellurium Te
Tin Sn
Titanium Ti
Zinc Zn


Metal alloys are minerals that are composed of combinations of different metals in one mineral. All native metals are impure usually by several percentage points, but these are not distinguished as distinct minerals unless they meet certain mineralogical criteria. Generally they must be consistent in their composition and have their respective elements occupy specific sites in their crystal lattice in order to be named as new minerals.



Iron Fe
Iron-nickel (Fe, Ni)
Kamacite alpha - (Fe, Ni)
Nickel Ni
Taenite beta - (Fe, Ni)
Tetrataenite FeNi
Wairauite CoFe
Anyuiite Au(Pb, Sb)2
Auricupride Cu3Au
Belendorffite Cu7Hg6
Cabriite Pd2SnCu
Cupalite (Cu, Zn)Al
Danbaite CuZn2
Eugenite Ag9Hg2
Hunchunite (Au, Ag)2Pb
Isoferroplatinum (Pt, Pd)3(Fe, Cu)
Kolymite Cu7Hg6
Leadamalgam HgPb2
Luanheite Ag3Hg
Maldonite Au2Bi
Osmium (Os, Ir)
Paraschachnerite Ag3Hg2
Plumbopalladinite Pd3Pb2
Schachnerite Ag1.1Hg0.9
Stannopalladinite (Pd, Cu)3Sn2
Tetraauricupride AuCu
Tetraferroplatinum PtFe
Weishanite (Au, Ag)3Hg2
Yuanjiangite AuSn
Zhanghengite (Cu, Zn, Fe, Al, Cr)


Borate minerals are more complex in their structures than typical carbonates. The group is similar to the many structural variations found in the Silicate Class of minerals, not due to chemistry (mostly sodium, calcium and/or magnesium borates, many with hydroxides, many hydrated and some with chlorine; but little else in terms of chemical variation) but due to boron in the BO3 ionic group having a positive three (+3) charge. It only requires half of the bond strength of each negative two (-2) oxygen., which allows the oxygens to bond with other borons evenly and thus link boron groups together into compound groups, chains, sheets and even a framework structure using BO4 tetrahedrons linked to BO3 groups. A common borate is Howlite

Stistaite SnSb
Arsenolamprite As
Nierite Si3N4
Paradocrasite Sb2(Sb, As)2
Rosickyite S
Silicon Si
Sinoite Si2N2O
Sulfur S
Tellurium Te

Alloys that are composed of semi-metals with metals are classified as sulfides but are sometimes listed as elements. They usually share similarities to other sulfides in their physical properties. These minerals are in the Selenides, the Tellurides, the Antimonides and the Arsenides Subclasses of the Sulfide Class. The main difference between elemental alloys and these semi-metal alloys is the presence of covalent bonding in these minerals as opposed to the strictly metallic bonding in pure metals and their metal alloys. These minerals, which combine metals such as iron with the very non-metallic elements of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon are quite unique and quite rare. They are not too different from sulfides which typically combine metals with sulfur.

Barringerite (Fe, Ni)2P
Carlsbergite CrN
Cohenite Fe3C
Haxonite (Fe, Ni)23C6
Niggliite PtSn
Nierite Si3N4
Osbornite TiN
Perryite (Fe, Ni)8(Si, P)3
Roaldite Fe4N
Schreibersite (Fe, Ni)3P
Siderazot Fe5N2
Suessite (Fe, Ni)3Si
Tongbaite Cr3C2
Purpurite Rough Pieces 20-40g 1
Dioptase & Mimetite on Matrix 28g 5cm
Mimetite with Dioptase


The Phosphate Class is made up of minerals with a basic chemical unit of tetrahedral (AO4) groups with a negative three (-3) charge. The A can be either Phosphorus, Arsenic, Vanadium or Antimony. The basic chemical unit can be combined with metal ions on a one to one ratio or usually in more complex combinations with other ions such as hydroxide groups (OH), uranyl groups (UO2), a halogen or even water molecules. The typical phosphate is vitreous to dull, often strongly colored, above average in density, average in hardness (4-7), and low in index of refraction unless ions such as lead are present. All other properties are variable. Many interesting and beautiful mineral specimens come from this class and although a large number of minerals are known to belong to this class, only some of the members of the Apatite Group are considered common.



Beudantite is a difficult mineral to classify in that it has both an arsenate anion group and a sulfate anion group. The arsenate anion would normally dictate that beudantite be classified in the Arsenate Subclass of the Phosphate Class of minerals. But beudantite’s sulfate anion group is intricate and essential in its structure, while the arsenate anion group can be substituted for by a phosphate anion group to at least a limited degree (see the Beudantite Group below). Many classification schemes place beudantite in the Phosphate Class however. Beudantite, which is named for the French mineralogist Francois S. Beudant, is at times a very attractive mineral. It can be beautifully colored although often too dark, appearing black. It has a nice high luster due to its lead content. It is often associated with other rare secondary minerals that are found in the oxidation zone of ore deposits. Often these assorted mineral specimens can be quite interesting and a bonus to the collector who likes lots of different minerals on one specimen (more for the money, so to speak).

Beudantite (Lead Iron Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Corkite (Lead Iron Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Gallobeudantite (Lead Gallium Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hidalgoite (Lead Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Kemmlitzite (Strontium Cerium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Orpheite (Lead Aluminum Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Schlossmacherite (Hydrated Hydrogen Calcium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Andrewsite (Copper Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Arrojadite (Sodium Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Barbosalite (Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Beusite (Manganese Iron Calcium Magnesium Phosphate)
Bolivarite (Hydrated Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Brushite (Hydrated Calcium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Cassidyite (Hydrated Calcium Nickel Magnesium Phosphate)
Crandallite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Cyrilovite (Hydrated Sodium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Diadochite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Phosphate Hydroxide)
Dickinsonite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Embreyite (Hydrated Lead Chromate Phosphate)
Englishite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Evansite (Hydrated Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Fairfieldite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Faheyite (Hydrated Manganese Magnesium Sodium Beryllium Iron Phosphate)
Faustite (Hydrated Zinc Copper Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Fillowite (Hydrated Sodium Manganese Iron Calcium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Florencite (Cerium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Frondelite (Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Gorceixite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Gordonite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Goyazite (Strontium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Graftonite (Iron Manganese Calcium Phosphate)
Griphite (Sodium Aluminum Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate Hydroxide)
Hagendorfite (Sodium Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Hentschelite (Copper Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Heterosite (Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Holtedahlite (Magnesium Phosphate Carbonate Hydroxide Oxide)
Hurlbutite (Calcium Beryllium Phosphate)
Jahnsite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Magnesium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Landesite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Laubmannite (Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Leucophosphite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Lipscombite (Iron Manganese Phosphate Hydroxide)
Messelite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Mitridatite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Monetite (Calcium Hydro-Phosphate)
Montgomeryite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Moraesite (Hydrated Beryllium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Natramblygonite (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Phosphate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Natrophilite (Sodium Magnesium Phosphate)
Newberyite (Hydrated Magnesium Hydro-Phosphate)
Nissonite (Hydrated Copper Magnesium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Overite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Palermoite (Lithium Sodium Strontium Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Paraschozite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Phosphate)
Phosphoferrite (Hydrated Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Phosphosiderite (Hydrated Iron Phosphate)
Plumbogummite (Lead Aluminum Hydro-Phosphate Hydroxide)
PURPURITE (Manganese Phosphate)
Reddingite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Roscherite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Iron Beryllium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Rosemaryite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate)
Salmonsite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Sicklerite (Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Sincosite (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Phosphate)
Spencerite (Hydrated Zinc Phosphate Hydroxide)
Stercorite (Hydrated Sodium Ammonium Hydro-Phosphate)
Stewartite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Struvite (Hydrated Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate)
Switzerite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Tavorite (Lithium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Triplite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Phosphate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Triploidite (Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Trolleite (Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
TURQUOISE (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Wagnerite (Magnesium Iron Manganese Calcium Phosphate Fluoride)
Dumontite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Parsonite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate)
Phuralumite (Hydrated Aluminum Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Phurcalite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Renardite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Sabugalite (Hydrated Aluminum Uranyl Hydro-Phosphate)
Saleeite (Hydrated Magnesium Uranyl Phosphate)
Uramphite (Hydrated Ammonium Uranyl Phosphate)




Abernathyite (HydratedPotassium Uranyl Arsenate)
Arsenuranospathite (Hydrated Hydrogen Aluminum Uranyl Arsenate)
Arsenuranylite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Arsenate Hydroxide)
Heinrichite (HydratedBarium Uranyl Arsenate)
Uranospathite (HydratedCopper Uranyl Arsenate Phosphate)
Uranospinite (HydratedCalcium Uranyl Arsenate)
Adelite (Calcium Magnesium Arsenate Hydroxide)
Arseniosiderite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Arsenate Oxide)
Arsenoclasite (Manganese Arsenate Hydroxide)
Arsenocrandallite (Calcium Strontium Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
Arsenoflorencite-(Ce) (Cerium Lanthanum Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
Arsenogoyazite (Strontium Calcium Barium Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
Atelestite (Bismuth Arsenate Oxide Hydroxide)
Berzeliite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Manganese Arsenate)
Beta-roselite (Hydrated Calcium Cobalt Magnesium Arsenate)
Brandtite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Magnesium Arsenate)
Cafarsite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Titanium Iron Arsenate)
Carminite (Lead Iron Arsenate Hydroxide)
Caryinite (Sodium Calcium Lead Manganese Magnesium Arsenate)
Ceruleite (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
Chenevixite (Hydrated Copper Iron Arsenate Hydroxide)
Chernovite (Yttrium Arsenate)
Chlorophoenicite (Hydrated Manganese Magnesium Zinc Arsenate Oxide Hydroxide)
Chudobaite (Hydrated Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Zinc Manganese Arsenate Hydroxide)
Cornubite (Copper Arsenate Hydroxide)
Cornwallite (Hydrated Copper Arsenate Hydroxide)
DUFTITE (Copper Lead Arsenate Hydroxide)
Durangite (Sodium Aluminum Arsenate Fluoride)
Euchroite (Hydrated Copper Arsenate Hydroxide)
Eveite (Manganese Arsenate Hydroxide)
Guerinite (Hydrated Calcium Arsenate Hydroxide)
Holdenite (Manganese Magnesium Zinc Silicate Arsenate Hydroxide)
Lavendulan (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Copper Arsenate Chloride)
Leiteite (Zinc Iron Arsenate)
Lotharmeyerite (Calcium Zinc Manganese Arsenate Hydroxide)
Luetheite (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
MIMETITE (Lead Arsenate Chloride)
Phaunouxite (Hydrated Calcium Arsenate)
Phillipsbornite (Lead Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxide)
Phillipsburgite (Hydrated Copper Zinc Arsenate Phosphate Hydroxide)
Picropharmacolite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Arsenate Hydroxide)
Retzain (Manganese Cerium Lanthanum Niobium Magnesium Arsenate Hydroxide)
Rosslerite (Hydrated Magnesium Arsenate Hydroxide)
Rouseite (Hydrated Lead Manganese Arsenate)
Sarkinite (Manganese Arsenate Hydroxide)
Schultenite (Lead Arsenate Hydroxide)
Svabite (Calcium Arsenate Fluoride Chloride Hydroxide)
Tyrolite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Carbonate Arsenate Hydroxide)
Wendwilsonite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Cobalt Arsenate)
Zincroselite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Arsenate)
Chervetite (Lead Vanadate)
Clinobisvanite (Bismuth Vanadate)
Curienite (HydratedLead Uranyl Vanadate)
Dreyerite (Bismuth Vanadate)
Hewettite (HydratedCalcium Vanadate)
Hummerite (HydratedPotassium Magnesium Vanadate)
Pascoite (HydratedCalcium Vanadate)
Schubnelite (Hydrated Iron Vanadate)
Sengierite (HydratedCopper Uranyl Vanadate Hydroxide)
Sherwoodite (HydratedCalcium Aluminum Vanadate)
Steigerite (Hydrated Aluminum Vanadate)
Vanalite (HydratedSodium Aluminum Vanadate)
Vanuralite (HydratedAluminum Uranyl Vanadate)
Wakefieldite (Yttrium Cerium Lead Vanadate)
Hematolite (Manganese Magnesium Aluminum Arsenate Arsenite Hydroxide)
Magnussonite (Manganese Magnesium Copper Arsenite Hydroxide Chloride)
Reinerite (Zinc Arsenite)
Synadelphite (Hydrated Manganese Magnesium Calcium Arsenate Arsenite Hydroxide)
Trigonite (Lead Manganese Arsenate Arsenite Hydroxide)
Trippkeite (Copper Arsenite)
Cyanophyllite (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Antimonate Hydroxide)
Rainbow Obsidian Tumbled L-XL2
Rainbow Obsidian
Pink Andean Opal Tumbled Stones L-XL 1
Pink Andean Opal


The members of the (unofficial) Mineraloids Class are often mistaken for minerals and are sometimes classified as minerals, but lack the necessary crystalline structure to be truly classified as such. Pearl, jet and amber are in addition the products of organic process that further remove them from full mineral status. These materials are found naturally, some are treated as gemstones and are included in most mineral references.

AMBER (Succinite – fossilized tree resin)
JET (Very Compact Coal)
Lechatelierite (Nearly Pure Silica Glass)
LIMONITE (A Mixture of Oxides)
OBSIDIAN (Volcanic Silica Glass)
OPAL (Hydrated Silica)
PEARL (Organicly Produced Carbonate)
TEKTITES (Meteoritic Silica Glass)