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YolandiVo1
YolandiVo1
Bidorbuy
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Excellent quality
chesouza
chesouza
Bidorbuy
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Great quality great service
[Anon]
[CR] Submission
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The order was delivered in record time. Wish that you would stock sage smudge sticks and Palo Santo sticks so I don’t have to shop anywhere else ever again. Already scanning your website for my next order although I wasn’t planning on getting anything. Keep up the amazing work.
Lebo T.
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delivery was fast which was surprising considering im all the way in jhb. the packaging was adorable and love the personal writing on the quote. 10/10 will buy again
Samantha de Lange
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Fast delivery, amazing packaging, I am so happy with my products
Charmaine Mokonyane
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Over the moon. Quick and easy ordering and quick and easy delivery – I am very impressed
Bonolo M.
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The delivery was really fast and friendly. The stones are absolutely perfect and bigger than I expected. Love them!
Monique L.
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Honestly just a wonderful experience shopping with The Mystic Cat. Beyond helpful and adds so much care and love into each parcel. Their products are absolutely stunning and exactly as described. The whole experience is just so special, would really recommend 100%.
[Anon]
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very happy with customer service delivery, kind and helpful assistance
[Anon]
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The website is built incredibly well and is super easy to navigate. I absolutely love how there are short descriptions of each crystal for those such as myself who are completely new to working with crystals… It makes it easier to understand all I need to know before purchasing anything and I love that… Delivery is incredibly quick and I absolutely love the love and care taken into packaging my products in an eco-friendly and sustainable way; it always just feels like a lot of love and effort is put into making each delivery feel like it was specially meant for ME… It feels really personal, especially considering the note written on every receipt. I absolutely love everything about ordering from The Mystic Cat and I swear I’ll continue to be a regular customer❤
Sue Ann
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Thanks so much for my order everything was packed so nicely ❤️ Will definitely be shopping again soon.
Tatum Petersen
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This is literally my favourite website and I love ordering from you. Really good quality crystals and really pretty jewelry and you have the biggest variety of incense than any other website. The delivery is fast and efficient, the packaging is amazing and the personal messages you write inside makes me so happy. Thank you so much for the kind customer service and for making it easy to follow your package when it’s ready for delivery. Literally the best crystal shop ever!!
Darren Taylor
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Very happy with your site and the amazing customer service!
Sibusiso Bangani
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I'm absolutely in love with how everything operates. Great customer care. Quick delivery. Absolutely well packaged goods. Thank you so much S & R
Mikayla Pietersen
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Love the crystals I ordered and they arrived so quickly! Thank you x
Vicky Geralis
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Thank you so much for your efficient service and I absolutely loved opening up my package which was so beautifully wrapped...will most definitely shop again xxx
Qhama Daka
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Amazing website. Quick delivery. Beautiful crystals wrapped up with a personal touch. A lot of thought & love was put into this shop. Thank you Mystic Cat! <3 P.S. And this is my second order!
Debbie Power
[CR] Submission
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Thank you again for the gorgeous crystals, they always arrive speedily and are great specimens! You even have my 10 year old son hooked!
ChaSno3471
ChaSno3471
BidorBuy
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All pieces are exactly as advertised. Everything arrived with no damage and beautifully packed! Can't wait to order more gems soon!
Babalwa Sikembula
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The service was absolutely fantastic, I wasn’t quite happy with the service from courier guy.
Karien
Karien
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Don’t need to say anything😃the number 5 says it all😊. Very nice website. Glad that I have found you…And the prices is good
Clinquant
@clinquantdesigns
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When you order some new crystals online and they come wrapped up all sweet and lovely smelling in packaging that can be used again, pure love!!! Thank you Mystic Cat for the thoughtful packaging & amazing service!!! Will definitely order from you guys again soon!
Arthur Fincham
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Quick, efficient and beautifully presented.
Belinda
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No hassles, stones arrived as promised. Highly recommended.
Anita
Anita
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It was such a breeze to order and the delivery was really quick. Really appreciated the personal touch and care with the packaging.
Chanel S.
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Extremely fast delivery time with beautiful packaging that ensures my gems arrived in one piece! Love this shop and will continue to support them.
Amy T.
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Amazing customer service and very friendly when answering all my questions.. Loved the little gift I received with my order.. Definitely going to be ordering from mystic cat again!
Kelly v.R.
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I just received my order and I literally have a client coming in 10min that I wanted to use the pyramid for - such good timing! Thank you so much, & the packaging is lovely.
Alne
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The Mystic Cat is amazing! I constantly received updates on my order. The correspond from The Mystic Cat was always friendly and I really appreciate how far they went for me, their customer. Thank you
Jeanette
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Super happy. I was sent a picture of my beautiful crystal because it wasn’t possible to courier yet at the time with the lock down, it meant so much to see my first crystals ever bought.
Natalie Lucia
Natalie Lucia@thebeautifularmy
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I got my parcel today thank you SO much!! So happy!
Shireen L.
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Quick delivery, great communication & such lovely products at great prices!
Kirsten S
Kirsten S
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Thank you so much for my beautiful crystals. I am so so excited about them. I am very happy with my order and will be ordering from you guys again very soon!!
Judith Miller
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Great service, with a super quality stone’s and bonus gift. I'm very happy thank you.
Lolita92
Lolita92
BidorBuy
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I have nothing but good things to sat about the Mystic Cat team, excellent customer service and delivery is fast
KittyDez
KittyDez
BidorBuy
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Amazing service, BEAUTIFUL and handmade packaging. I will 100% order from The Mystic Cat again.
Engela
Engela
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Hi. I received my parcel just now. Don't know who is more excited; me or my kids. Thank you sooo much. Beautifully packaged, with a personal message and a free gift! Love it. And the insence smells devine! You guys rock. ❤ Love, light and lots of blessings
Nozipho Nthembu
Nozipho Nthembu
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Beautiful and sacred space, full of love and light!
Natalie Ngonela
Natalie Ngonela
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Thank you so much for your help and I definitely look forward to being a regular customer as a result of my satisfaction with my products. Blessings, Natalie Ngonela
Natanya du Toit
Natanya du Toit
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Thank you, our purchase has arrived and we are so pleased with it. Nat
Kagiso Huluhulu
Kagiso Huluhulu
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I just wanted to let you know that I received my package today and I am truly greatful my brother and this surely wasn't the last time we do business together.
Kagiso Huluhulu
Kagiso Huluhulu
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You guys are amazing and keep on on doing the wonderful work you do. May The Mystic Cat grow bigger and bigger. Have a wonderful day. Namaste.
Malefane Lethae
Malefane Lethae
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Would like to take these moments to say thank you for my babies arrived very early in the morning... The first call I got today was from the currie man to deliver my babies.... Thank you again.. POWER
Kady Laloo
Kady Laloo
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Hi. I just received my order and sorted through them. 🙂 Love them thank you
Laila Kader
Laila Kader@of.blue.heart.waves
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I can't wait for these crystals to join my other crystals. @themysticcat Love and light Thank youu <3
Maureen Noko Morifi
Maureen Noko Morifi
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Hello There, Appreciate You So Much for I have received my very first order with you guys looking forward to many more ordering. Have An Awesome Day further.
Claire Sayer
Claire Sayer
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Fantastic! A lot of thought went into your business, its lovely... well done, and wishing you tons of success! ♡
Lizette Norris
Lizette Norris
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Thank you for all your patience and guidance…. Crystal hugs, Lizette
 anne55
anne55Bidorbuy
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Superfast postage, good communication. Recommended seller
mwcharm5
mwcharm5 Bidorbuy
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Great seller, Great Product - Thank you
 gezina loots
gezina loots Bidorbuy
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extremely friendly and helpful thank you very much!!!
 tuscany2007
tuscany2007 Bidorbuy
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great seller. kept in touch and delivered on time
 Kings ZA
Kings ZA Bidorbuy
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Great seller, fast response A+
 saias
saias Bidorbuy
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Very happy with my purchase
 KdeBruin
KdeBruin Bidorbuy
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great sellers and product
 Pamela1007
Pamela1007 Bidorbuy
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Great and fast service
 Kittentips
Kittentips Bidorbuy
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The gemstone poster is perfect and we loev our crystals, thank you!
 peacefisimi
peacefisimi Bidorbuy
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The seller is so wonderful. Good communication and fast responses
 cloete2007
cloete2007 Bidorbuy
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Thanks for my beautiful necklace. Love it. A++++++++ seller.
 kroon9525
kroon9525 Bidorbuy
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Fantastic seller and excellent service!! Thank you
 sangus
sangus Bidorbuy
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Box arrived badly damaged but crystals were all okay, thank goodness! thanks for a great sale.
asian.on.a.journey
asian.on.a.journey@asian.on.a.journey
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You guys are super cute😍🖤🖤🖤 thank you!!
Karien Janse v Rensburg
Karien Janse v Rensburg
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I just received my crystals. Just want to say, thank you!!! And thanks for packing them so nicely Hope you have a wonderful day
 Michelle Strydom
Michelle Strydom
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Thank you so much, I received my package. Beautiful, love it! The voucher is great, will be using it very happily :)
Corbin Van Wijk
Corbin Van Wijk
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I LOVE YOU GUYS! LOVE AND LIGHT!!😍
Barbs Sikembula
Barbs Sikembula
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I just received my parcel...thank you so much *hugs*
Thandi Mzamo
Thandi Mzamo
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Thanks I have received my parcel and the first thing when I opened it was Wooooooow! what a beautiful packaging and the note, it's priceless. I am so happy I found your website and looking forward to more orders with you since it's gonna be my first time smudging and using crystals. I will definitely refer my friends & colleagues. I am a happy customer!
Monet Potgieter
Monet Potgieter
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Thank you so so so much for my beautiful necklace! Love the moss agate <3 I just want to buy everything at your shop!!! I am so glad I came across it!
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MINERAL CLASSES - THE DANA SYSTEM

Minerals are classified according to their chemical composition into families or classes. This system is called the Dana System, created by Professor James Dana of Yale University  in 1848. The Dana system divides the over 3000 minerals found on earth into eight basic classes: silicates, oxides, sulfates, sulfides, carbonates, halides, native elements, phosphates and mineraloids.

Below you will find a short introduction to each of the eight classes, followed by the full Dana system classification tree with sub classes, groups and individual varieties. Enjoy!

THE 8 BASIC CLASSES

SILICATES

Silicates are formed through the combination of metals with Silicon and oxygen, and this is the largest group of all. There are more silicates than all other minerals combined! Mica and Quartz are examples of the Silicate group. Silicates have been further divided by their structures into 6 sub-classes.

Hematite Tumbled L-XL 1

SULFATES

Sulfates are compounds of sulfur combined with metal and oxygen. It is a large group of minerals that tend to be soft, and translucent. Celestite is an example.

CARBONATES

Carbonates are a group of minerals made of carbon, oxygen and a metallic element. Calcite is the most common of the group.

Rainbow Fluorite Polished Slice 15cm

NATIVE ELEMENTS

Native Elements is the category of “the pure” – while most minerals are made up of combinations of chemical elements, the minerals in this group are found on their own, in a naturally pure form. Gold, copper and silver are examples.

PHOSPHATES

Phosphates are not as common in occurrence as the other classes of minerals. They are often formed when other minerals are broken down by weathering. They are often brightly coloured. Apatite is an example.

OXIDES

Oxides are a combination of metal and oxygen. While some minerals in this class are dull ores, it ranges to include precious gems like rubies. 

SULFIDES

Sulfides are compounds of sulfur, usually with a metal. They tend to be heavy and brittle. Several important metal ores come from this group. Pyrite is an example.

HALIDES

Halides form from halogen elements like chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine combined with metallic elements. They are very soft and easily dissolved in water. Halite is a well known example of this group (sodium chloride – table salt), as well as Fluorite.

Azurite Crystal Specimen

MINERALOIDS

Mineraloids is the term used for those substances that do not fit neatly into one of these eight classes. They generally don’t have a crystalline structure (amorphous). Opal, jet, amber and pearl all belong to this unofficial group.

THE FULL DANA SYSTEM TREE

Amethyst
Dumortierite Tumbled L- XL 1
Dumortierite
Epidote Cluster 4cm RARE 1
Epidote

SILICATES

Silicate minerals contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. Over 90% of the common rock-forming minerals are silicates. Common silicates include Quartz, Feldspar and Mica. The Silicates are divided into the following subclasses, not by their chemistries, but by their structures.

  • Nesosilicates
  • Sorosilicates
  • Inosilicates
  • Cyclosicates
  • Phylosilicates
  • Tectosilicates

NESOSILICATES

Single tetrahedrons. The simplest of all the silicate subclasses, the Nesosilicates include all silicates where the (SiO4) tetrahedrons are unbonded to other tetrahedrons. In this respect they are similar to other mineral classes such as the sulfates and phosphates. These other classes also have tetrahedral basic ionic units (PO4 & SO4) and thus there are several groups and minerals within them that are similar to the members of the nesosilicates. Nesosilicates, which are sometimes referred to as orthosilicates, have a structure that produces stronger bonds and a closer packing of ions and therefore a higher density, index of refraction and hardness than chemically similar silicates in other subclasses. Consequently, there are more gemstones in the nesosilicates than in any other silicate subclass.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
GARNET
HOWLITE
KYANITE
TOPAZ
ZIRCON
Bakerite (Hydrated Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Datolite (Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Gadolinite (Cerium Yttrium Lanthanum Neodymium Iron Beryllium Silicate Oxide)
Hingganite (Cerium Yttrium Ytterbium Erbium Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Minasgeraisite (Calcium Yttrium Beryllium Silicate Oxide)
Yttrocerberysilite (Yttrium Beryllium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Clinohedrite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Silicate)
Euclase (Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Gerstmannite (Magnesium Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Hodgkinsonite (Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Alleghanyite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Jerrygibbsite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Leucophoenicite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Manganhumite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Reinhardbraunsite (Calcium Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Ribbeite (Magnesium Iron Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Sonolite (Manganese Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Laihunite (Iron Silicate)
Liebenbergite (Nickel Magnesium Silicate)
Tephroite (Manganese Silicate)
Larsenite (Lead Zinc Silicate)
Trimerite (Calcium Manganese Beryllium Silicate)
Afwillite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Andalusite (Aluminum Silicate)
Beryllite (Hydrated Beyllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Bredigite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Britholite (Cerium Yttrium Calcium Silicate Phosphate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Bultfonteinite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Cappelenite-(Y) (Barium Yttrium Cerium Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
Cerite-(Ce) (Cerium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Chlorellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Chloride Fluoride)
Chloritoid (Iron Magnesium Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
DATOLITE Group
Dumortierite (Aluminum Boro-Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ellenbergerite (Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Fluoride Hydroxide Chloride)
EUCLASE Group
Eulytite (Bismuth Silicate)
Fluorbritholite-(Ce) (Cerium Lanthanum Sodium Calcium Silicate Phosphate Fluoride)
Fluorellestadite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Fluoride Hydroxide Chloride)
GARNET Group
Garrelsite-VIII (Barium Sodium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Glaucochroite (Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Haiweeite [Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Silicate]
Hatrurite (Calcium Silicate)
Hellandite-(Y) (Calcium Yttrium Aluminum Iron Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
Henritermierite (Calcium Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Holtite (Aluminum Tantalum Antimony Boro-Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
HOWLITE (Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide)
HUMITE
Huttonite (Thorium Silicate)
Hydroxylellestadite (Calcium Silicate Sulfate Hydroxide Fluoride Chloride)
Jasmundite (Calcium Silicate Oxide Sulfide)
Kanonaite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate)
Karnasurtite (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Thorium Titanium Niobium Aluminum Silicate Phosphate Hydroxide)
Kirschstenite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
KYANITE
Larnite (Calcium Silicate)
Liberite (Lithium Beryllium Silicate)
Limoriite (Yttrium Silicate Carbonate)
Magnesiochloritoid (Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Malayaite (Calcium Tin Silicate)
Mattheddleite (Lead Silicate Sulfate Oxide Chloride)
Melanocerite (Hydrated Cerium Calcium Boro-Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Merwinite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Monticellite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Mullite (Aluminum Silicate)
Nagelschmidtite (Calcium Silicate Phosphate)
Okanoganite-(Y) (Sodium Calcium Yttrium Cerium Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
OLIVINE (Aluminum Silicate)
Ottrelite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Natisite (Sodium Titanate Silicate)
Paranatisite (Sodium Titanate Silicate)
PHENAKITE
Ringwoodite (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Saryarkite (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Thorium Aluminum Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Sitinakite (Hydrated Sodium Potassium Titanium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Soddyite [Hydrated Uranyl Silicate]
Spurrite (Calcium Silicate Carbonate)
Stillwellite (Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Boro-Silicate)
Sverigeite (Sodium Manganese Magnesium Tin Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Tadzhikite (Calcium Cerium Yttrium Titanium Aluminum Iron Boro-Silicate)
Tombarthite (Yttrium Silicate Hydroxide)
TOPAZ (Aluminum Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Tornebohmite (Cerium Lanthanum Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
TRIMERITE
Trimounsite-(Y) (Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium Ytterbium Gadolinium Holmium Terbium Samarium Titanium Silicate)
Tritomite (Cerium Yttrium Lanthanum Calcium Thorium Iron Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
URANOPHANE
Uranosilite [Uranium Uranyl Silicate]
Vanadomalayaite (Calcium Vanadium Silicate)
Vicanite-(Ce) (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Thorium Arsenic Sodium Iron Boro-Silicate Fluoride)
Wadalite (Calcium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate Chloride)
Wadsleyite (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Weeksite [Hydrated Potassium Uranyl Silicate]
Yftisite (Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium Titanium Tin Silicate Oxide Fluoride Hydroxide)
Yoderite (Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
ZIRCON

SOROSILICATES

Double Tetrahedrons. Sorosilicates have two silicate tetrahedrons that are linked by one oxygen ion and thus the basic chemical unit is the anion group (Si2O7) with a negative six charge (-6). This structure forms an unusual hourglass-like shape and it may be due to this oddball structure that this subclass has so few common members in comparison with all the other silicate subclasses. It includes minerals that may also contain normal silicate tetrahedrons as well as the double tetrahedrons. The more complex members of this group, such as Epidote, contain chains of aluminum oxide tetrahedrons being held together by the individual silicate tetrahedrons and double tetrahedrons. Most members of this group are rare, but epidote is widespread in many metamorphic environments.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
DANBURITE
EPIDOTE
ZOISITE
HEMIMORPHITE

EPIDOTE

Clinozoisite (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
EPIDOTE (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Hancockite (Lead Calcium Strontium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Piemontite (Calcium Aluminum Manganese Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Strontiopiemontite (Calcium Manganese Strontium Aluminum Iron Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
ZOISITE (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Akatoreite (Manganese Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Akermanite (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Aminoffite (Calcium Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Andremeyerite (Barium Iron Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Androsite-(La) (Manganese Calcium Lanthanum Cerium Neodymium Aluminum Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ardennite (Manganese Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Arsenic Vanadate Phosphate Silicate Hydroxide)
Bafertisite (Barium Iron Manganese Titanium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Baghdadite (Hydrated Calcium Zirconium Titanium Silicate)
Barylite (Barium Beryllium Silicate)
Barysilite (Lead Manganese Silicate)
Barytolamprophyllite (Sodium Potassium Barium Calcium Strontium Titanium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Belkovite (Barium Niobium Titanium Silicate Fluoride)
Bornemanite (Barium Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate Phosphate Fluoride Oxide)
Burpalite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Silicate)
Chevkinite-(Ce) (Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Sodium Thorium Iron Magnesium Titanium Silicate)
Clinophosinaite (Sodium Calcium Phosphate Silicate)
Cuspidine (Calcium Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
DANBURITE
Davreuxite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Delindeite (Sodium Potassium Barium Calcium Titanium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Edgarbaileyite (Mercury Silicate)
EPIDOTE
Epistolite (Hydrated Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate)
Ericssonite (Barium Manganese Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Fersmanite (Calcium Sodium Titanium Niobium Silicate Fluoride)
Fluorthalenite (Yttrium Silicate Fluoride)
Foshallasite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate)
Fresnoite (Barium Titanium Silicate)
Ganomalite (Lead Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Gehlenite (Calcium Aluminum Silicate)
Gittinsite (Calcium Zirconium Silicate)
Gotzenite (Calcium Sodium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Gugiaite (Calcium Beryllium Silicate)
Hainite (Sodium Calcium Titanium Zirconium Manganese Iron Silicate Fluoride)
Harstigite (Calcium Manganese Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide)
Hejtmanite (Barium Manganese Iron Titanium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
HEMIMORPHITE
Hennomartinite (Hydrated Strontium Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Hiortdahlite (Calcium Sodium Zirconium Titanium Yttrium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Innelite (Barium Potassium Sodium Calcium Titanium Silicate Sulfate Oxide)
Jaffeite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Janhaugite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Titanium Zirconium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Jeffreyite (Calcium Sodium Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Jennite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Junitoite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Silicate)
Keiviite (Yttrium Ytterbium Silicate)
Melanotekite (Lead Iron Silicate)
Kentrolite (Lead Manganese Silicate)
Kilchoanite (Calcium Silicate)
Killalaite (Hydrated Calcium Silicate)
Komarovite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Sodium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lamprophyllite (Sodium Strontium Barium Titanium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lavenite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Zirconium Titanium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Lawsonite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Lomonosovite (Sodium Manganese Titanium Silicate Phosphate Oxide)
Macfallite (Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Medaite (Manganese Calcium Vanadium Arsenic Silicate Hydroxide)
Melanotekite (Lead Iron Silicate)
Melilite (Calcium Sodium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate)
Meliphanite (Calcium Sodium Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Mongolite (Hydrated Calcium Niobium Silicate Hydroxide)
Nacareniobsite (Niobium Sodium Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Praseodymium Neodymium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Nasonite (Lead Calcium Silicate Chloride)
Niocalite (Calcium Niobium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Noelbensonite (Hydrated Barium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Orientite (Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Orthoericssonite (Barium Manganese Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Perrierite (Cerium Calcium Lanthanum Neodymium Thorium Iron Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Zirconium Silicate)
Phosinaite-(Ce) (Sodium Calcium Cerium Silicate Phosphate)
Pumpellyite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Manganese Silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Queitite (Lead Zinc Silicate Sulfate)
Rankinite (Calcium Silicate)
Rinkite (Sodium Calcium Cerium Titanium Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Rosenbuschite (Calcium Sodium Zirconium Titanium Silicate Fluoride)
Rosenhahnite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
Rowlandite-(Y) (Yttrium Iron Silicate Fluoride)
Ruizite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Silicate Hydroxide)
Rustumite (Calcium Silicate Chloride Hydroxide)
Samfowlerite (Calcium Manganese Zinc Beryllium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Seidozerite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Titanium Manganese Silicate Oxide Fluoride)
Strontiochevkinite (Strontium Lanthanum Cerium Calcium Iron Titanium Zirconium Silicate)
Sursassite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Thalenite (Yttrium Silicate Hydroxide)
Thortveitite (Scandium Yttrium Silicate)
Tilleyite (Calcium Silicate Carbonate)
Tiragalloite (Manganese Arsenic Silicate Hydroxide)
VESUVIANITE/IDOCRASE
Vuonnemite (Sodium Niobium Titanium Silicate Phosphate Oxide Fluoride)
Werdingite (Magnesium Iron Aluminum Boron Silicate Oxide)
Wohlerite (Sodium Calcium Zirconium Niobium Silicate Oxide Hydroxide Fluoride)
Yoshimuraite (Barium Strontium Titanium Manganese Silicate Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide Chloride)
Yttrialite (Yttrium Thorium Silicate)
Zunyite (Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride Chloride)

INOSILICATES

The cleavage of the two groups results between chains and does not break the chains thus producing prismatic cleavage. In the single chained silicates the two directions of cleavage are at nearly right angles (close to 90 degrees) forming nearly square cross sections. In the double chain silicates the cleavage angle is close to 120 and 60 degrees forming rhombic cross sections making a convenient way to distinguish double chain silicates from single chain silicates.

  • SINGLE CHAIN INOSILICATE
  • DOUBLE CHAIN INOSILICATES

SINGLE CHAIN INOSILICATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
BUSTAMITE
AEGIRINE
DIOPSIDE
HYPERSTHENE
JADEITE
SPODUMENE
RHODONITE
SHATTUCKITE
Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
AEGIRINE (Sodium Iron Silicate)
Augite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Clinoenstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
DIOPSIDE (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
Esseneite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Hedenbergite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
HYPERSTHENE (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
JADEITE (Sodium Aluminum Silicate)
Jervisite (Sodium Calcium Iron Scandium Magnesium Silicate)
Johannsenite(Calcium Manganese Silicate)
Kanoite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Kosmochlor (Sodium Chromium Silicate)
Namansilite (Sodium Manganese Silicate)
Natalyite (Sodium Vanadium Chromium Silicate)
Omphacite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
Petedunnite (Calcium Zinc Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicate)
Pigeonite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Silicate)
SPODUMENE (Lithium Aluminum Silicate)
Donpeacorite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
Ferrosilite (Iron Magnesium Silicate)
Nchwaningite (Hydrated Manganese Silicate)
Alamosite (Lead Silicate)
Batisite (Barium Potassium Sodium Titanium Silicate)
BUSTAMITE
Gageite (Manganese Magnesium Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Hillebrandite (Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
PYROXENE
Pyroxferroite (Iron Manganese Calcium Silicate)
Pyroxmangite (Manganese Silicate)
RHODONITE (Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Silicate)
Serandite (Sodium Manganese Calcium Silicate Hydroxide)
SHATTUCKITE (Copper Silicate Hydroxide)
Wollastonite (Calcium Silicate)

DOUBLE CHAIN INOSILICATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
CHAROITE
INESITE
Fe-Mg-Li Clinoamphiboles
Clinoferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Clinoholmquistite (Lithium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Dannemorite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Grunerite (Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Holmquistite (Lithium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Tirodite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Fe-Mg-Li Orthoamphiboles
Ferro-anthophyllite (Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrogedrite (Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferroholmquistite (Lithium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Gedrite (Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Protoferro-anthophyllite (Iron Manganese Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodicanthophyllite (Sodium Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite (Sodium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodic-ferrogedrite (Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sodicgedrite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ca Amphiboles)
Ferro-actinolite (Calcium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrokaersutite (Sodium Calcium Iron Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferropargasite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrotschermakite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Fluorocannilloite (Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Fluoride)
Hastingsite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Hornblende (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Kaersutite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Titanium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiohastingsite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiosadanagaite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Pargasite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassic-magnesiosadanagaite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassicpargasite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Potassicsadanagaite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Tschermakite (Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ca-Na Clinoamphiboles
Barroisite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrobarroisite (Calcium Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrorichterite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferrowinchite (Calcium Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Katophorite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiokatophorite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Magnesiotaramite (Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Potassic-fluorrichterite (Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Silicate Fluoride)
Taramite (Sodium Calcium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Winchite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Alkali Amphiboles
Eckermannite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ferro-eckermannite (Sodium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Fluoro-ferroleakeite (Sodium Iron Lithium Silicate Fluoride)
Kornite (Sodium Potassium Magnesium Manganese Lithium Silicate Hydroxide)
Kozulite (Sodium Manganese Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Leakeite (Sodium Magnesium Iron Lithium Silicate Hydroxide)
Nyboite (Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Ungarettiite (Sodium Manganese Silicate Oxide)

CYCLOSILICATE

These silicates form chains such as in the inosilicates except that the chains link back around on themselves to form rings.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
BERYL
DIOPTASE
TOURMALINE
SUGILITE
Chromdravite (Sodium Magnesium Chromium Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
ELBAITE (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
Feruvite (Calcium Iron Magnesium Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
FOITITE (Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
Liddicoatite (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-silicate Oxide Hydroxidem Fluoride)
Olenite (Sodium Aluminum Boro-silicate Oxide Hydroxide)
Povondravite (Sodium Iron Boro-silicate Hydroxide Oxide)
SCHORL (Sodium Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide)
INDICOLITE
VERDELLITE
RUBELLITE
WATERMELON

PHYLOSILICATE

In this subclass, rings of tetrahedrons are linked by shared oxygens to other rings in a two dimensional plane that produces a sheet-like structure. Typically, the sheets are then connected to each other by layers of cations. These cation layers are weakly bonded and often have water molecules and other neutral atoms or molecules trapped between the sheets. This explains why this subclass produces very soft minerals such as talc, which is used in talcum powder. Some members of this subclass have the sheets rolled into tubes that produce fibers as in asbestos serpentine.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
APOPHYLLITE
CAVANSITE
CHRYSOCOLLA
CHLORITE
VERMICULITE
MICA
PETALITE
PREHNITE
SERPENTINE
CHLORITE
Glauconite (Potassium Sodium Iron Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Illite (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Magnesium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Sauconite (Hydrated Sodium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Baileychlore (Zinc Iron Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide)
Chamosite (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Oxide)
The generallized mineral Chlorite
Clinochlore (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Cookeite (Lithium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Nimite (Nickel Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Pennantite (Manganese Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Penninite (Iron Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Sudoite (Magnesium Aluminum Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
LEPIDOLITE (Potassium Lithium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
MUSCOVITE (Potassium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Paragonite (Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Allophane (Hydrated Aluminum Silicate)
APOPHYLLITE (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Bannisterite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Manganese Iron Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
CAVANSITE (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Silicate)
CHRYSOCOLLA (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Hydrogen Silicate Hydroxide)
CLAY
VERMICULITE (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Delhayelite (Hydrated Sodium Potassium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Chloride Fluoride Sulfate)
Franklinfurnaceite (Calcium Iron Aluminum Manganese Zinc Silicate Hydroxide)
Franklinphilite (Hydrated Potassium Manganese Aluminum Silicate)
Gonyerite (Manganese Magnesium Iron Silicate Hydroxide)
Leucosphenite [Hydrated Barium Sodium Titanium Boro-silicate]
MICA
Minehillite [Hydrated Potassium Sodium Calcium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide]
Nordite [Cerium Lanthanum Strontium Calcium Sodium Manganese Zinc Magnesium Silicate]
Pentagonite (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Silicate)
PETALITE [Lithium Aluminum Silicate]
PREHNITE (Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide)
Rhodesite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Potassium Silicate)
SERPENTINE
Wickenburgite (Hydrated Lead Calcium Aluminum Silicate)
Zeophyllite [Hydrated Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Fluoride]

TECTOSILICATES

This subclass is often called the “Framework Silicates” because its structure is composed of interconnected tetrahedrons going outward in all directions forming an intricate framework analogous to the framework of a large building.

Hematite Tumbled L-XL 1
Hematite
Chrysoberyl on Chrome Diopside
Smoky Quartz Rutilated Asylum 275g 7cm 1
Rutile in Quartz

OXIDES

Oxide minerals are made up of oxygen and one or more metals. Common oxide minerals include hematite and limonite. In a strict sense, minerals that belong to the more complex mineral classes such as the silicates are really oxides. But this would be cumbersome for mineralogists to be able to deal with only the four different classes of the elements class, the halides class, the sulfides class and finally the extremely large oxides class with all of its many subclasses and over 90% of all known minerals. By convention therefore, the oxides are limited to non complex minerals containing oxygen or hydroxide. Oxides also contain mostly ionic bonds and this helps distinguish members from the more complex mineral classes whose bonds are typically more covalent in nature. Quartz, SiO2, would be considered an oxide, and still is in some mineral guides and texts, except for its covalent silicon oxygen bonds and its structural similarity to the other Tectosilicates.

  • OXIDES
  • HYDROXIDES

OXIDES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
CHRYSOBERYL
CORUNDRUM
CUPRITE
HEMATITE
RUTILE
SPINEL
MAGNETITE

HYDROXIDES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
LIMONITE 

N/A

GOETHITE (Iron Oxide Hydroxide)
LIMONITE (Hydrated Iron Oxide Hydroxide)
Romeite (Calcium Sodium Iron Manganese Antimony Titanium Oxide Hydroxide)
Stetefeldtite (Silver Antimony Oxide Hydroxide)
Celestite
Desert Rose
Wulfenite crystal specimen 40g 4cm 1
Wulfenite

SULFATES

Sulfate minerals contain sulfur and oxygen (SO4) combined with other elements. Common sulfate minerals include Gypsum and Barite.

  • SULFATES
  • CHROMATES
  • MOLYBDENATES
  • SELENATES & SELENITES
  • TELLURATES & TELLURITES
  • TUNGSTATES
  • SULFITES

SULPHATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
ANHYDRITE
BARITE
CELESTITE
ETTRINGITE
SELENITE
DESERT ROSE
SATIN SPAR
Ammonioalunite (Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Huangite (Calcium Aluminum Sulfate Oxide Hydroxide)
Minamiite (Sodium Calcium Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Natroalunite (Sodium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Osarizawaite (Lead Copper Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Walthierite (Barium Aluminum Sulfate Oxide Hydroxide)
Ammoniojarosite (Ammonium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Argentojarosite (Silver Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Beaverite (Lead Copper Iron Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Dorallcharite (Thallium Potassium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hydroniumjarosite (Hydronium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Plumbojarosite (Lead Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
BARITE (Barium Sulfate)
CELESTITE(Strontium Sulfate)
Hashemite (Barium Chromate Sulfate)
Corkite (Lead Iron Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Gallobeudantite (Lead Gallium Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hidalgoite (Lead Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Kemmlitzite (Strontium Cerium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Orpheite (Lead Aluminum Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Schlossmacherite (Hydrated Hydrogen Calcium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Jokokuite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Pentahydrite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
Siderotil (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
SELENITE
DESERT ROSE
SATIN SPAR
Alabastar
Apjohnite (Hydrated Manganese Aluminum Sulfate)
Bilinite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Dietrichite (Hydrated Zinc Iron Manganese Aluminum Sulfate)
Halotrichite(Hydrated Iron Aluminum Sulfate)
Pickeringite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Sulfate)
Redingtonite (Hydrated Iron Magnesium Nickel Chromium Aluminum Sulfate)
Wupatkiite (Hydrated Cobalt Magnesium Nickel Aluminum Sulfate)
Dwornikite (Hydrated Nickel Iron Sulfate)
Gunningite (Hydrated Zinc Manganese Sulfate)
Poitevinite (Hydrated Copper Iron Zinc Sulfate)
Szmikite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Szomolnokite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Bieberite (Hydrated Cobalt Sulfate)
Boothite (Hydrated Copper Sulfate)
Mallardite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfate)
Zinc-melanterite (Hydrated Zinc Copper Iron Sulfate)
Starkeyite (Hydrated Cobalt Manganese Nickel Sulfate)
Boyleite (Hydrated Zinc Magnesium Sulfate)
Ilesite (Hydrated Manganese Zinc Iron Sulfate)
Rozenite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate)
Starkeyite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
ALUNITE
JAROSITE
Amarantite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Ammonioalunite (Ammonium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
ANHYDRITE (Calcium Sulfate)
Aphthitalite (Potassium Sodium Sulfate)
Argentojarosite (Silver Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
BARITE
Beaverite (Copper Iron Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
BEUDANTITE
Botryogen (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Burkeite (Sodium Carbonate Sulfate)
Butlerite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Charlesite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Silicon Hydroborate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Chessexite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Magnesium Zinc Aluminum Silicate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Despujolsite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Sulfate Hydroxide)
Devilline (Hydrated Calcium Copper Sulfate Hydroxide)
ETTRINGITE (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)
Goslarite (Hydrated Zinc Sulfate)
GYPSUM (Hydrated Calcium Sulfate)
HALOTRICHITE
Hauckite (Magnesium Manganese Zinc Iron Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hectorfloresite (Sodium Iolate Sulfate)
Heidornite (Sodium Calcium Borate Sulfate Chloride Hydroxide)
Hexahydrite (Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate)
Humberstonite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Magnesium Nitrate Sulfate)
Johannite (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Sulfate Hydroxide)
Jouravskite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
KIESERITE
Lanarkite (Lead Sulfate)
Langite (Hydrated Copper Sulfate Hydroxide)
MELANTERITE
Mirabilite (Hydrated Sodium Sulfate)
Mooreite (Hydrated Magnesium Zinc Manganese Sulfate Hydroxide)
Morenosite (Hydrated Nickel Sulfate)
Mountkeithite (Hydrated Magnesium Nickel Iron Chromium Aluminum Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Nakauriite (Hydrated Copper Carbonate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Plumbojarosite (Lead Iron Sulfate Hydroxide)
Potassium alum (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Sulfate)
Rapidcreekite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate Sulfate)
Retgersite (Hydrated Nickel Sulfate)
ROZENITE
Serpierite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Zinc Sulfate Hydroxide)
Tatarskite (Hydrated CAlcium Magnesium Carbonate Sulfate Chloride Hydroxide)
Torreyite (Hydrated Magnesium Manganese Zinc Sulfate Hydroxide)
Ungemachite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Iron Nitrate Sulfate)
Vanthoffite (Sodium Magnesium Sulfate)
Voltaite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Sulfate)
Wherryite (Lead Copper Sulfate Silicate Hydroxide)
Woodwardite(Hydrated Copper Aluminum Sulfate Hydroxide)

CHROMATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

CROCOITE

N/A

Chromatite (Calcium Chromate)
CROCOITE
Deanesmithite (Mercury Chromate Sulfide)
Edoylerite (Mercury Chromate Sulfide)
Hashemite (Barium Chromate Sulfate)
Hemihedrite (Lead Zinc Chromate Silicate Fluoride)
Iranite (Lead Copper Chromate Silicate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Lopezite (Potassium Chromate)
Macquartite (Lead Copper Chromate Silicate Hydroxide)
Phoenicochroite (Lead Chromate Oxide)
Santanaite (Lead Chromate Oxide)
Tarapacaite (Potassium Chromate)
Wattersite (Mercury Chromate)

MOLYBDENATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

WULFENITE

N/A

Deloryite (Copper Uranyl Molybdenate Hydroxide)
Koechlinite (Bismuth Molybdenate)
Lindgrenite (Copper Molybdenate Hydroxide)
Sedovite (Uranium Molybdenate)
Szenicsite (Copper Molybdenate Hydroxide)
WULFENITE

SELENATES & SELENITES

SeO4 & SeO3

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

COBALTOMENITE

N/A

Ahlfeldite (Hydrated Nickel Cobalt Selenite)
Chalcomenite (Copper Selenite)
Clinochalcomenite (Hydrated Copper Selenite)
COBALTOMENITE (Hydrated Cobalt Selenite)
Demesmaekerite (Hydated Lead Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Derriksite (Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Francisite (Copper Bismuth Selenite Oxide Chloride)
Guilleminite (Hydated Barium Uranyl Selenite Oxide)
Haynesite (Hydated Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Mandarinoite (Hydrated Iron Selenite)
Marthozite (Hydated Copper Uranyl Selenite Hydroxide)
Molybdomenite (Lead Selenite)
Olsacherite (Lead Selenate Sulfate)
Schmiederite (Lead Copper Selenite Selenate Hydroxide)
Sophiite (Zinc Selenite Chloride)

TELLURATES & TELLURITES

TeO4 &TeO3

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

N/A

N/A

Balyakinite (Copper Tellurite)
Carlfriesite (Calcium Tellurite)
Cesbronite (Hydrated Copper Tellurite Hydroxide)
Chekhovichite (Bismuth Lead Iron Tellurite)
Cheremnykhite (Zinc Lead Tellurate Vanadate Arsenate)
Choloalite (Copper Lead Tellurite)
Cuzticite (Hydrated Iron Tellurate)
Denningite (Manganese Zinc Tellurite)
Dugganite (Lead Zinc Tellurate Arsenate Vanadate Silicate Hydroxide)
Eztlite (Hydrated Lead Iron Tellurite Tellurate Hydroxide)
Fairbankite (Lead Tellurite)
Frankhawthorneite (Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Girdite (Lead Hydrogen Tellurite Tellurate)
Jensenite (Hydrated Copper Tellurate)
Keystoneite (Hydrated Magnesium Nickel Iron Tellurite)
Khinite (Lead Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Kinichilite (Hydrated Magnesium Manganese Iron Tellurite)
Kuranakhite (Lead Manganese Tellurate)
Kuksite (Lead Calcium Zinc Tellurate Phosphate Vanadate)
Mackayite (Iron Tellurite Hydroxide)
Magnolite (Mercury Tellurite)
Mcalpineite (Hydrated Copper Tellurate)
Montanite (Hydrated Bismuth Tellurate)
Mroseite (Calcium Tellurite Carbonate Oxide)
Tlapallite (Hydrated Lead Hydrogen Tellurite Tellurate)
Parakhinite (Copper Lead Tellurate Hydroxide)
Pingguite (Bismuth Tellurite)
Plumbotellurite (Lead Tellurite)
Poughite (Hydrated Iron Tellurite Sulfate)
Rajite (Copper Tellurite)
Rodalquilarite (Hydrogen Iron Tellurite Chloride)
Schiefflinite (Hydrated Lead Tellurate Sulfate)
Smirnite (Bismuth Tellurite)
Sonoraite (Hydrated Iron Tellurite Hydroxide)
Spiroffite (Manganese Zinc Tellurite)
Teineite (Hydrated Copper Tellurite)
Tlalocite (Hydrated Copper Zinc Tellurite Tellurate Chloride Hydroxide)
Tlapallite (Hydrogen Calcium Lead Copper Zinc Tellurite Tellurate Sulfate)
Winstanleyite (Titanium Tellurite)
Xocomecatlite (Copper Tellurate Hydroxide)
Yecoraite (Hydrated Bismuth Iron Tellurite Tellurate Oxide)
Zemannite (Hydrated Magnesium Zinc Iron Tellurite)

TUNGSTATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

N/A

N/A

Cuprotungstite (Copper Tungstate Hydroxide)
Jixianite (Lead Iron Tungstate Oxide Hydroxide)
Lindgrenite (Aluminum Tungstate Hydroxide)
Raspite (Lead Tungstate)
Russellite (Bismuth Tungstate)
Sanmartinite (Zinc Iron Tungstate)
Stolzite (Lead Tungstate)
Tungstibite (Antimony Oxide Tungstate)

SULFITES

SO3

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES

N/A

N/A

Gravegliaite (Hydrated Manganese Sulfite)
Hannebachite (Hydrated Calcium Sulfite)
Orschallite (Hydrated Calcium Sulfite Sulfate)
Scotlandite (Lead Sulfite)
Bismuth Crystal Specimen 32g 4cm 1
Bismuth
Pyrite Rough Pieces 20-40g 1
Pyrite
Chalcopyrite

SULFIDES

Sulfide minerals contain sulfur and a metal. Common sulfide minerals include galena and pyrite. The Sulfide Class minerals comprise an economically important class of minerals. Most major ores of important metals such as copper, lead and silver are sulfides. Strong generalities exist in this class. The majority of sulfides are metallic, opaque, generally sectile, soft to average in hardness and they have high densities, black or dark-colored streaks, and an igneous origin. But, there are a few vitreous and transparent members such as realgar, cinnabar and orpiment.

  • SULFIDES
  • SULFOSALTS
  • SELENIDES
  • TELLURIDES
  • ANTIMONIDES
  • ARSENIDES

SULFIDES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
BISMUTH
BORNITE
CHALCOPYRITE
GALENA
PYRITE

N/A

Aguilarite (Silver Selenium Sulfide)
Alabandite (Manganese Sulfide)
Argentopentlandite (Silver Iron Nickel Sulfide)
Argentopyrite (Silver Iron Sulfide)
Bismuthinite (Bismuth Sulfide)
BORNITE (Copper Iron Sulfide)
Carrollite (Copper Cobalt Nickel Sulfide)
CHALCOPYRITE (Copper Iron Sulfide)
Famatinite (Copper Antimony Sulfide)
GALENA (Lead Sulfide)
Germanite (Copper Germanium Gallium Iron Zinc Arsenic Sulfide)
Glaucodot (Copper Iron Arsenic Sulfide)
Hauchecornite (Nickel Bismuth Antimony Sulfide)
Hauerite (Manganese Sulfide)
Jalpaite (Silver Copper Sulfide)
Laurite (Ruthenium Sulfide)
Lautite (Copper Arsenic Sulfide)
Metacinnabar (Mercury Sulfide)
Patronite (Vanadium Sulfide)
Polydymite (Nickel Sulfide)
PYRITE (Iron Sulfide)
Schollhornite (Hydrated Sodium Chromium Sulfide)
Siegenite (Cobalt Nickel Sulfide)
Stannite (Copper Iron Tin Sulfide)
Sternbergite (Silver Iron Sulfide)
Stromeyerite (Silver Copper Sulfide)
Teallite (Lead Tin Sulfide)
Tetradymite (Bismuth Tellurium Sulfide)
Tungstenite (Tungsten Sulfide)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Berzelianite (Copper Selenide)
Eucairite (Silver Copper Selenide)
Klockmannite (Copper Selenide)
Tiemannite (Mercury Selenide)
Umangite (Copper Selenide)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Coloradoite (Mercury Telluride)
Empressite (Silver Telluride)
Kostovite (Copper Gold Telluride)
Krennerite (Silver Gold Telluride)
Melonite (Nickel Telluride)
Petzite (Silver Gold Telluride)
Rickardite (Copper Telluride)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Aurostibite (Gold Antimonide)
Breithauptite (Nickel Antimonide)

* These minerals are sometimes thought of as alloys of metals with semi-metals and placed in the Elements Class.

Maucherite (Nickel Arsenide)
Nickel-skutterudite (chloanthite) (Nickel Arsenide)
Smaltite (Cobalt Nickel Arsenide)
Emerald Green Calcite
Rhodochrosite
Azurite Crystal Specimen
Azurite

CARBONATES

Carbonate minerals contain carbonate (CO3), a combination of carbon and oxygen, combined with other elements. Common carbonate minerals include: calcite and dolomite.

  • CARBONATES
  • URANYL CARBONATES
  • RARE EARTH CARBONATES
  • BORATES

CARBONATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
ARAGONITE
CERUSSITE
AZURITE
CALCITE
MAGNESITE
RHODOCHROSITE
SMITHSONITE
DOLOMITE
KUTNOHORITE
MALACHITE
KOLWEZITE
STICHTITE
ARAGONITE Calcium Carbonate
CERUSSITE Lead Carbonate
Strontianite (Strontium Carbonate)
Witherite (Barium Carbonate)
CALCITE (Calcium Carbonate)
Gaspeite (Nickel Magnesium Iron Carbonate)
MAGNESITE (Magnesium Carbonate)
Otavite (Cadmium Carbonate)
RHODOCHROSITE (Manganese Carbonate)
Siderite (Iron Carbonate)
SMITHSONITE (Zinc Carbonate)
Sphaerocobaltite (Cobalt Carbonate)
Ankerite (Calcium Iron Carbonate)
Benstonite (Barium Strontium Calcium Manganese Magnesium Carbonate)
DOLOMITE (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
Huntite (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
KUTNOHORITE (Calcium Manganese Magnesium Iron Carbonate)
Minrecordite (Calcium Zinc Carbonate)
Norsethite (Barium Magnesium Carbonate)
Glaukospherite (Copper Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
KOLWEZITE (Copper Cobalt Carbonate Hydroxide)
Mcguinnessite (Magnesium Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Nullaginite (Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Rosasite (Copper Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Zincrosasite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Alstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Alumohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
ARAGONITE
Artinite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Aurichalcite (Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
AZURITE (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Barbertonite (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Barentsite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Barringtonite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
Barytocalcite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Baylissite (Hydrated Potassium Magnesium Carbonate)
Beyerite (Calcium Lead Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Bismutite (Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Brenkite (Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
Brugnatellite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
Butschliite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
CALCITE (Calcium Carbonate)
Caresite (Hydrated Iron Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Chalconatronite (Hydrated Sodium Copper Carbonate)
Charmarite (Hydrated Manganese Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Dawsonite (Sodium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
DOLOMITE (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate)
Dresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Dundasite (Hydrated Lead Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Eitelite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate)
Fairchildite (Potassium Calcium Carbonate)
Gaylussite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Georgeite (Hydrated Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hellyerite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate)
Hydrocerussite (Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrodresserite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrotalcite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Hydrozincite (Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Ikaite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
Indigirite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Kalicinite (Potassium Bicarbonate)
Kambaldaite (Hydrated Sodium Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Kettnerite (Calcium Bismuth Carbonate Oxide)
Lansfordite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate)
Leadhillite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Loseyite (Manganese Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Macphersonite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
MALACHITE (Copper Carbonate Hydroxide)
Manasseite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Monohydrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Carbonate)
Nahcolite (Sodium Bicarbonate)
Natrite (Sodium Carbonate)
Natrofairchildite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Natron (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
Nesquehonite (Hydrated Magnesium Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
Northupite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Chloride)
Nyerereite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Olekminskite (Strontium Calcium Barium Carbonate)
Paralstonite (Barium Calcium Carbonate)
Para-alumohydrocalcite
Phosgenite (Lead Carbonate Cloride)
Pirssonite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Plumbonacrite (Lead Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Pokrovskite (Hydrated Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Pyroaurite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
Quintinite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
ROSASITE (Copper Zinc Carbonate Hydroxide)
Rouvilleite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Carbonate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Sabinaite (Sodium Zirconium Titanium Carbonate Oxide)
Sclarite (Zinc Magnesium Manganese Carbonate Hydroxide)
Sergeevite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydroxide)
Shannonite (Lead Carbonate Oxide)
Sheldrickite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Carbonate Fluoride)
Shortite (Sodium Calcium Carbonate)
Sjogrenite (Hydrated Magnesium Iron Carbonate Hydroxide)
STICHTITE (Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Strontiodresserite (Hydrated Strontium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide)
Susannite (Lead Sulfate Carbonate Hydroxide)
Szymanskiite (Hydrated Mercury Nickel Magnesium Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Teschemacherite (Ammonia Bicarbonate)
Thermonatrite (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate)
Trona (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
Tunisite (Sodium Calcium Aluminum Carbonate Hydroxide Chloride)
Tychite (Sodium Magnesium Carbonate Sulfate)
Vaterite (Calcium Carbonate)
Wegscheiderite (Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate)
Weloganite (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Zirconium Carbonate)
Zaratite (Hydrated Nickel Carbonate Hydroxide)
Zemkorite (Sodium Potassium Calcium Carbonate)

URANYL CARBONATES

Astrocyanite-(Ce) (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Bayleyite (Hydrated Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
Bijvoetite-(Y) (Hydrated Yttrium Dysprosium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Fontanite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Grimselite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Uranyl Carbonate)
Joliotite (Hydrated Uranyl Carbonate)
Liebigite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Metazellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Rabbittite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Roubaultite (Copper Uranyl Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Rutherfordine (Uranyl Carbonate)
Shabaite (Hydrated Copper Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Praseodymium Samarium Calcium Yttrium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Sharpite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)
Swartzite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Uranyl Carbonate)
Voglite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Uranyl Carbonate)
Widenmannite (Lead Uranyl Carbonate)
Zellerite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Carbonate)
Znucalite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Uranyl Carbonate Hydroxide)

RARE EARTH CARBONATES

Ancylite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Strontium Calcium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Baiyuneboite-(Ce) (Sodium Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Calcioancylite (Hydrated Calcium Strontium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Calkinsite-(Ce) (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate)
Cebaite (Barium Cerium Neodymium Carbonate Fluoride)
Daqingshanite-(Ce) (Strontium Calcium Barium Cerium Lanthanum Phosphate Carbonate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Donnayite-(Y) (Hydrated Sodium Strontium Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Ewaldite (Barium Calcium Yttrium Sodium Potassium Carbonate)
Gysinite-(Nd) (Hydrated Neodymium Lead Carbonate Hydroxide)
Horvathite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride)
Huanghoite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Khanneshite (Sodium Calcium Barium Strontium Cerium Carbonate)
Kimuraite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Lanthanite (Hydrated Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
lokkaite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate)
Mckelveyite-(Y) (Hydrated Barium Sodium Calcium Uranium Yttrium Carbonate)
Reederite-(Y) (Sodium Yttrium Carbonate Sulfate Chloride)
Remondite-(Ce) (Sodium Cerium Lanthanum Calcium Strontium Carbonate)
Rontgenite-(Ce) (Calcium Cerium Lanthanum Carbonate Fluoride)
Sahamalite-(Ce) (Magnesium Iron Cerium Lanthanum Neodymium Carbonate)
Schuilingite-(Nd) (Hydrated Lead Copper Neodymium Gadolinium Samarium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Shomiokite (Hydrated Sodium Yttrium Carbonate)
Tengerite-(Y) (Hydrated Calcium Yttrium Carbonate Hydroxide)
Thorbastnasite (Hydrated Thorium Calcium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)
Tuliokite (Hydrated Barium Sodium Thorium Carbonate)
Tundrite (Sodium Cerium Neodymium Lanthanum Titanium Niobium Silicate Carbonate Oxide Hydroxide)
Zhonghuacerite-(Ce) (Barium Cerium Carbonate Fluoride)

BORATES

Borate minerals are more complex in their structures than typical carbonates. The group is similar to the many structural variations found in the Silicate Class of minerals, not due to chemistry (mostly sodium, calcium and/or magnesium borates, many with hydroxides, many hydrated and some with chlorine; but little else in terms of chemical variation) but due to boron in the BO3 ionic group having a positive three (+3) charge. It only requires half of the bond strength of each negative two (-2) oxygen., which allows the oxygens to bond with other borons evenly and thus link boron groups together into compound groups, chains, sheets and even a framework structure using BO4 tetrahedrons linked to BO3 groups. A common borate is Howlite

  • BORATES
  • IODATES
  • NITRATES
Admontite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate)
Aksaite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Ameghinite (Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Ammonioborite (Hydrated Ammonia Borate)
Aristarainite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Borate)
Bandylite (Copper Hydroborate Chloride)
Behierite (Tantalum Niobium Borate)
Berborite (Hydrated Beryllium Borate Hydroxide Fluoride)
Biringuccite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Blatterite (Manganese Magnesium Antimony Iron Borate Oxide)
Braitschite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Cerium Lanthanum Borate)
Calciborite (Calcium Borate)
Chambersite (Manganese Borate Chloride)
Chelkarite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate Chloride)
Clinokurchatovite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Manganese Borate)
Congolite (Iron Magnesium Manganese Borate Chloride)
Diomignite (Lithium Borate)
Ekaterinite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Ericaite (Iron Magnesium Manganese Borate Chloride)
Ezcurrite (Hydrated Sodium Borate)
Fabianite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Federovskite (Calcium Magnesium Manganese Borate Hydroxide)
Fluoborite (Magnesium Borate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Frolovite (Calcium Hydroborate)
Ginorite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Gowerite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Halurgite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Hambergite (Beryllium Borate Hydroxide)
Henmilite (Calcium Copper Hydroborate Hydroxide)
Hexahydroborite (Hydrated Calcium Hydroborate)
Hilgardite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride)
HOWLITE
Hulsite (Iron Magnesium Antimony Borate)
Hungchaoite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Hydrochlorborite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Inderborite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Inderite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Inyoite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Jeremejevite (Aluminum Borate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Jimboite (Manganese Borate)
Johachidolite (Calcium Aluminum Borate)
Kaliborite (Hydrated Potassium Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Karlite (Magnesium Aluminum Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Korzhinskite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Kotoite (Magnesium Borate)
Kurchatovite (Calcium Magnesium Manganese Iron Borate)
Kurnakovite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Ludwigite Group (Magnesium Iron Nickel Titanium Antimony Aluminum Borate)
Magnesiohulsite (Magnesium Iron Antimony Borate)
Mcallisterite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Meyerhofferite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nasinite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Nifontovite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nobleite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Nordenskioldine (Calcium Antimony Borate)
Olshanskyite (Calcium Hydroborate)
Orthopinakiolite (Magnesium Manganese Borate)
Penobsquisite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Pentahydroborite (Hydrated Calcium Hydroborate)
Peprossiite (Cerium Lanthanum Aluminum Borate)
Pinakiolite (Magnesium Manganese Antimony Borate)
Pinnoite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate)
Preobrazhenskite (Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Priceite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Pringleite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Probertite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Rivadavite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Borate)
Roweite (Calcium Manganese Borate Hydroxide)
Ruitenbergite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Santite (Hydrated Potassium Borate Hydroxide)
Sassolite (Boric Acid)
Satimolite (Hydrated Potassium Sodium Aluminum Chloride)
Sborgite (Hydrated Sodium Borate Hydroxide)
Shabynite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Chloride Hydroxide)
Sibirskite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Solongoite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide Chloride)
Strontioborite (Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Strontioginorite (Hydrated Strontium Calcium Borate)
Studenitsite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Suanite (Magnesium Borate)
Szaibelyite (Magnesium Borate Hydroxide)
Takedaite (Calcium Borate)
Takeuchiite (Magnesium Manganese Iron Borate)
Teepleite (Sodium Hydroborate Chloride)
Tertschite (Hydrated Calcium Borate)
Trembathite (Magnesium Iron Borate Chloride)
Tunellite (Hydrated Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Tusionite (Manganese Antimony Borate)
Tuzlaite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Tyretskite (Hydrated Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Uralborite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Veatchite (Hydrated Strontium Borate Hydroxide)
Vimsite (Calcium Borate Hydroxide)
Volkovskite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Borate Hydroborate Chloride)
Wardsmithite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Borate)
Warwickite (Magnesium Titanium Iron Aluminum Borate Oxide)
Wightmanite (Hydrated Magnesium Borate Oxide Hydroxide)
Yuanfuliite (Magnesium Iron Aluminum Titanium Borate Oxide)
Bellingerite (Hydrated Copper Iodate)
Bruggenite (Hydrated Calcium Iodate)
Lautarite (Calcium Iodate)
Salesite (Copper Iodate Hydroxide)
Schwartzembergite (Lead Iodate Oxide Chloride Hydroxide)
Darapskite (Hydrated Sodium Sulfate Nitrate Hydroxide)
Gerhardtite (Copper Nitrate Hydroxide)
Hydrombobomkulite (Hydrated Nickel Copper Aluminum Nitrate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Likasite (Hydrated Copper Nitrate Hydroxide)
Mbobomkulite (Hydrated Nickel Copper Aluminum Nitrate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Nitrobarite (Barium Nitrate)
Nitrocalcite (Hydrated Calcium Nitrate)
Nitromagnesite (Hydrated Magnesium Nitrate)
Sveite (Hydrated Potassium Aluminum Nitrate Chloride Hydroxide)
Multicolour Fluorite
Fluorite Octahedron
Green Cubic Fluorite

HALIDES

The Halides are a group of minerals whose principle anions are halogens. Halogens are a special group of elements that usually have a charge of negative one when chemically combined. The halogens that are found commonly in nature include Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine and Bromine. Halides tend to have rather simply ordered structures and therefore a high degree of symmetry. The most famous halide mineral, halite (NaCl) or rock salt has the highest symmetry 4/m bar 3 2/m. The colorful mineral fluorite (CaF) also has 4/m bar 3 2/m symmetry and its cubic crystals are very popular mineral specimens. There are only a few common halide minerals. The typical halide mineral is soft, can be transparent, is generally not very dense, has good cleavage, and often has bright colors. Fluorite is an example of a Halide.

ATACAMITE (Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Avogadrite (Potassium Cesium Boron Fluoride)
Bararite (Ammonium Silicon Fluoride)
Bischofite (Hydrated Magnesium Chloride)
Bismoclite (Bismuth Chloride Oxide)
Boleite (Hydrated Lead Copper Silver Chloride Hydroxide)
Calomel (Mercury Chloride)
Camermanite (Potassium Silicon Fluoride)
Carnallite (Hydrated Potasium Magnesium Chloride)
Chiolite (Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Chlorargyrite (Silver Chloride)
Chlorocalcite (Potassium Calcium Chloride)
Chloromanganokalite (Potassium Manganese Chloride)
Chloroxiphite (Lead Copper Chloride Oxide Hydroxide)
Cotunnite (Lead chloride)
Cryolite (Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Cryolithionite (Lithium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Cryptohalite (Ammonium Silicon Fluoride)
Cumengeite (Hydrated Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Diaboleite (Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Douglasite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Chloride)
Embolite (Silver Chloride Bromide)
Erythrosiderite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Chloride)
Ferruccite (Sodium Boron Fluoride)
Fiedlerite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Fluocerite (Cerium Lanthanum Fluoride)
FLUORITE (Calcium Fluoride)
HALITE (Sodium Chloride)
Hieratite (Potassium Silicon Fluoride)
Jarlite (Sodium Strontium Aluminum Fluoride)
Kempite (Manganese Chloride Hydroxide)
Laurionite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Lawrencite (Iron Chloride)
Lorettoite (Lead Chloride Oxide)
Malladrite (Sodium Silicon Fluoride)
Marshite (Copper Iodide)
Matlockite (Lead Fluoride Chloride)
Mendipite (Lead Chloride Oxide)
Miersite (silver copper Iodide)
Nantokite (Copper Chloride)
Pachnolite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Paralaurionite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Penfieldite (Lead Chloride Hydroxide)
Prosopite (Calcium Aluminum Fluoride Hydroxide)
Pseudoboleite (Hydrated Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide)
Ralstonite (Hydrated Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Fluoride Hydroxide)
Rinneite (Potassium Sodium Iron Chloride)
Sal Ammoniac (Ammonium Chloride)
Scacchite (Manganese Chloride)
Sellaite (Magnesium Fluoride)
Sylvite (Potassium Chloride)
Tachhydrite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Chloride)
Thomsenolite (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminum Fluoride)
Villiaumite (Sodium Fluoride)
Silver
Antimony
Copper

NATIVE ELEMENTS

Native elements are minerals that form as individual elements. Gold and copper are examples of metallic native elements. Diamonds are a type of non-metallic native element as they consist of pure carbon.

  • NATIVE METALS
  • METAL ALLOYS
  • NATIVE NON-METALS & SEMI METALS
  • METAL & NON-METALLIC COMBOS

NATIVE METALS

The Metals Subclass and related metal alloys contains metals whose properties are rather similar due to the common way in which they crystallize and bond. The greatest difference in the metals is color.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
GOLD
COPPER
SILVER
PLATINUM
TITANIUM
ZINC

GOLD

Au
Aluminum Al
COPPER Cu
Gold Au
Lead Pb
Mercury Hg
SILVER Ag
Cadmium Cd
Chromium Cr
GOLD
Indium In
Iron Fe
Nickel Ni
The Platinum Group
Iridium (Ir, Os, Ru)
Palladium Pd
Platinum Pt
Rhodium (Rh, Pt)
Tellurium Te
Tin Sn
Titanium Ti
Zinc Zn

METAL ALLOYS

Metal alloys are minerals that are composed of combinations of different metals in one mineral. All native metals are impure usually by several percentage points, but these are not distinguished as distinct minerals unless they meet certain mineralogical criteria. Generally they must be consistent in their composition and have their respective elements occupy specific sites in their crystal lattice in order to be named as new minerals.

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
BRASS
IRON
NICKEL

IRON-NICKEL (Fe, Ni)

Iron Fe
Iron-nickel (Fe, Ni)
Kamacite alpha - (Fe, Ni)
Nickel Ni
Taenite beta - (Fe, Ni)
Tetrataenite FeNi
Wairauite CoFe
Anyuiite Au(Pb, Sb)2
Auricupride Cu3Au
Belendorffite Cu7Hg6
BRASS Cu3Zn2
Cabriite Pd2SnCu
Cupalite (Cu, Zn)Al
Danbaite CuZn2
Eugenite Ag9Hg2
Hunchunite (Au, Ag)2Pb
IRON-NICKEL (Fe, Ni)
Isoferroplatinum (Pt, Pd)3(Fe, Cu)
Kolymite Cu7Hg6
Leadamalgam HgPb2
Luanheite Ag3Hg
Maldonite Au2Bi
Osmium (Os, Ir)
Paraschachnerite Ag3Hg2
Plumbopalladinite Pd3Pb2
Schachnerite Ag1.1Hg0.9
Stannopalladinite (Pd, Cu)3Sn2
Tetraauricupride AuCu
Tetraferroplatinum PtFe
Weishanite (Au, Ag)3Hg2
Yuanjiangite AuSn
Zhanghengite (Cu, Zn, Fe, Al, Cr)

NATIVE NON-METALS & SEMI METALS

Borate minerals are more complex in their structures than typical carbonates. The group is similar to the many structural variations found in the Silicate Class of minerals, not due to chemistry (mostly sodium, calcium and/or magnesium borates, many with hydroxides, many hydrated and some with chlorine; but little else in terms of chemical variation) but due to boron in the BO3 ionic group having a positive three (+3) charge. It only requires half of the bond strength of each negative two (-2) oxygen., which allows the oxygens to bond with other borons evenly and thus link boron groups together into compound groups, chains, sheets and even a framework structure using BO4 tetrahedrons linked to BO3 groups. A common borate is Howlite

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
ARSENIC
CARBON
DIAMOND
GRAPHITE
SELENIUM
SULFUR
ARSENIC
Stistaite SnSb
Arsenolamprite As
CARBON
Nierite Si3N4
Paradocrasite Sb2(Sb, As)2
Rosickyite S
SELENIUM Se
Silicon Si
Sinoite Si2N2O
Sulfur S
Tellurium Te

Alloys that are composed of semi-metals with metals are classified as sulfides but are sometimes listed as elements. They usually share similarities to other sulfides in their physical properties. These minerals are in the Selenides, the Tellurides, the Antimonides and the Arsenides Subclasses of the Sulfide Class. The main difference between elemental alloys and these semi-metal alloys is the presence of covalent bonding in these minerals as opposed to the strictly metallic bonding in pure metals and their metal alloys. These minerals, which combine metals such as iron with the very non-metallic elements of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon are quite unique and quite rare. They are not too different from sulfides which typically combine metals with sulfur.

Barringerite (Fe, Ni)2P
Carlsbergite CrN
Cohenite Fe3C
Haxonite (Fe, Ni)23C6
Niggliite PtSn
Nierite Si3N4
Osbornite TiN
Perryite (Fe, Ni)8(Si, P)3
Roaldite Fe4N
Schreibersite (Fe, Ni)3P
Siderazot Fe5N2
Suessite (Fe, Ni)3Si
Tongbaite Cr3C2
Apatite
Purpurite
Dioptase & Mimetite on Matrix 28g 5cm
Mimetite with Dioptase

PHOSPHATES

The Phosphate Class is made up of minerals with a basic chemical unit of tetrahedral (AO4) groups with a negative three (-3) charge. The A can be either Phosphorus, Arsenic, Vanadium or Antimony. The basic chemical unit can be combined with metal ions on a one to one ratio or usually in more complex combinations with other ions such as hydroxide groups (OH), uranyl groups (UO2), a halogen or even water molecules. The typical phosphate is vitreous to dull, often strongly colored, above average in density, average in hardness (4-7), and low in index of refraction unless ions such as lead are present. All other properties are variable. Many interesting and beautiful mineral specimens come from this class and although a large number of minerals are known to belong to this class, only some of the members of the Apatite Group are considered common.

  • PHOSPHATES
  • URANYL PHOSPHATES
  • ARSENATES
  • VANADATES
  • ARSENITES
  • ANTIMONATES

PHOSPHATES

  • COMMON
  • GROUPS
  • ALL VARIETIES
APATITE
MIMETITE 
PURPURITE
TURQUOISE

Beudantite is a difficult mineral to classify in that it has both an arsenate anion group and a sulfate anion group. The arsenate anion would normally dictate that beudantite be classified in the Arsenate Subclass of the Phosphate Class of minerals. But beudantite’s sulfate anion group is intricate and essential in its structure, while the arsenate anion group can be substituted for by a phosphate anion group to at least a limited degree (see the Beudantite Group below). Many classification schemes place beudantite in the Phosphate Class however. Beudantite, which is named for the French mineralogist Francois S. Beudant, is at times a very attractive mineral. It can be beautifully colored although often too dark, appearing black. It has a nice high luster due to its lead content. It is often associated with other rare secondary minerals that are found in the oxidation zone of ore deposits. Often these assorted mineral specimens can be quite interesting and a bonus to the collector who likes lots of different minerals on one specimen (more for the money, so to speak).

Beudantite (Lead Iron Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Corkite (Lead Iron Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Gallobeudantite (Lead Gallium Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Hidalgoite (Lead Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Kemmlitzite (Strontium Cerium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Orpheite (Lead Aluminum Phosphate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Schlossmacherite (Hydrated Hydrogen Calcium Aluminum Arsenate Sulfate Hydroxide)
Andrewsite (Copper Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
APATITE
Arrojadite (Sodium Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Barbosalite (Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
BEUDANTITE
Beusite (Manganese Iron Calcium Magnesium Phosphate)
Bolivarite (Hydrated Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Brushite (Hydrated Calcium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Cassidyite (Hydrated Calcium Nickel Magnesium Phosphate)
Crandallite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Cyrilovite (Hydrated Sodium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Diadochite (Hydrated Iron Sulfate Phosphate Hydroxide)
Dickinsonite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Embreyite (Hydrated Lead Chromate Phosphate)
Englishite (Hydrated Potassium Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Evansite (Hydrated Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Fairfieldite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Faheyite (Hydrated Manganese Magnesium Sodium Beryllium Iron Phosphate)
Faustite (Hydrated Zinc Copper Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Fillowite (Hydrated Sodium Manganese Iron Calcium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Florencite (Cerium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Frondelite (Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Gorceixite (Hydrated Barium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Gordonite (Hydrated Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Goyazite (Strontium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Graftonite (Iron Manganese Calcium Phosphate)
Griphite (Sodium Aluminum Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate Hydroxide)
Hagendorfite (Sodium Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Hentschelite (Copper Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Heterosite (Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Holtedahlite (Magnesium Phosphate Carbonate Hydroxide Oxide)
Hurlbutite (Calcium Beryllium Phosphate)
Jahnsite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Magnesium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Landesite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Laubmannite (Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Leucophosphite (Hydrated Potassium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Lipscombite (Iron Manganese Phosphate Hydroxide)
Messelite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Mitridatite (Hydrated Calcium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Monetite (Calcium Hydro-Phosphate)
Montgomeryite (Hydrated Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Moraesite (Hydrated Beryllium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Natramblygonite (Sodium Lithium Aluminum Phosphate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Natrophilite (Sodium Magnesium Phosphate)
Newberyite (Hydrated Magnesium Hydro-Phosphate)
Nissonite (Hydrated Copper Magnesium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Overite (Hydrated Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Palermoite (Lithium Sodium Strontium Calcium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Paraschozite (Hydrated Calcium Zinc Phosphate)
Phosphoferrite (Hydrated Iron Manganese Phosphate)
Phosphosiderite (Hydrated Iron Phosphate)
Plumbogummite (Lead Aluminum Hydro-Phosphate Hydroxide)
PURPURITE (Manganese Phosphate)
Reddingite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Roscherite (Hydrated Calcium Manganese Iron Beryllium Phosphate Hydroxide)
Rosemaryite (Sodium Calcium Manganese Iron Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate)
Salmonsite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Sicklerite (Lithium Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Sincosite (Hydrated Calcium Vanadate Phosphate)
Spencerite (Hydrated Zinc Phosphate Hydroxide)
Stercorite (Hydrated Sodium Ammonium Hydro-Phosphate)
Stewartite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Struvite (Hydrated Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate)
Switzerite (Hydrated Manganese Iron Phosphate)
Tavorite (Lithium Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Triplite (Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Phosphate Fluoride Hydroxide)
Triploidite (Manganese Iron Phosphate Hydroxide)
Trolleite (Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
TURQUOISE (Hydrated Copper Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide)
Wagnerite (Magnesium Iron Manganese Calcium Phosphate Fluoride)
Dumontite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Parsonite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate)
Phuralumite (Hydrated Aluminum Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Phurcalite (Hydrated Calcium Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Renardite (Hydrated Lead Uranyl Phosphate Hydroxide)
Sabugalite (Hydrated Aluminum Uranyl Hydro-Phosphate)
Saleeite (Hydrated Magnesium Uranyl Phosphate)
Uramphite (Hydrated Ammonium Uranyl Phosphate)